An affine space , has two types of entities, i.e., points and vectors. All the vectors form a vector space, denoted as , on its own. has the following properties.
In NURBS community, we actually almost always put an extra restriction on equation (3). That is, all the coefficients are required to be non-negative, and such an affine combination is called convex hull combination, or more commonly interpolation (contrast to extrapolation<).
Based on these properties, it can be proved that an affine space has (addition and subtraction) algebra for its points and vectors in the common sense.
The usual Euclidean spaces are affine spaces with the affine operations defined component-wise. We use to represent an affine space of Euclidean -space. The related vector space, is just . Also in this tutorial, and is used to represent a general affine space of any dimension; similarly and for a general vector space.