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11 Name of messiahs

The messiah is not necessarily a king but the anointed of G-d, his servant. Most often this applied to kings, but also high priests were anointed.
Text 11-1: Sanhedrin 98b on the Names of Moshiach
The school of R. Shila said: The messiah's name is ‘Shiloh’, as it is stated, Until Shiloh come (Gen. XLIX, 10), where the word is spelt Shlh. The School of R. Hanina said: His name is 'Haninah’, as it is stated, I will not give you Haninah (Jer. XVI, 13). The School of R. Jannai said: His name is 'Yinnon’; for it is written, E'er the sun was, his name is Yinnon (Ps. LXXII, 17). R. Biba of Sergunieh said: His name is 'Nehirah’, as it is stated, And the light (nehorah) dwelleth with Him (Dan. II, 22), where the word is spelt nehirah.

The Vilna Gaon says that these four opinions are one since the initials of Menachem, Shilo, Yinnon, and Haninah make up the word Moshiach. The Gemara tells us that Moshe Rabenu and King Solomon had many names. Similarly the messiah has many names.

Maimonides teaches that we are commanded to believe in the coming of messiah, and though he might tarry, we wait and are prepared to follow. What is certain is that the prophets did not believe in one and only one messiah. In fact, Isaiah calls Cyrus the messiah when he beseeches him to let the Jews return to Israel.[1292]

In addition, the prophets teach that only G-d is our redeemer and savior. In other places, the prophets discuss leaders acting as agents to save the people. The leaders at best are servants of G-d bringing the children of Israel back to God. After the people betrayed G-d as their King in asking Samuel for a ‘king like the other nations’, G-d said listen to the people. Why the sudden acquiescence? We are permitted righteous leaders who will turn us back to our True and only King.

Text 11-2: Redeemer and redeemer – Savior and savior
Israel said to the Holy One, blessed be: Have you not redeemed us already through Moses and Joshua and the judges and kings? Yet now are we to return to be enslaved and be ashamed, as though we had never been redeemed?

The Holy One, blessed be he, said to them: Seeing that your redemption was at the hands of flesh and blood, and your leaders were men, here today, tomorrow in the grave; therefore your redemption has been a redemption for a space. But in the time to come I myself will redeem you; I, who am living and enduring will redeem you with a redemption enduring forever; as it is said: “O Israel, that art saved by the Lord with an everlasting salvation” (Isaiah 45:17)[1293]

Genesis teaches that G-d created us in His image. To love Him is to love our fellow man since everyone is in the image of G-d. A Midrash teaches, “He who is loved by others is loved by God.” Part of the role of a messiah is to be a righteous leader, who will unify the hearts of people to serve God. To believe in messiah is to raise our children as potential leaders helping others with the twinkling light of God in their eyes. Each child is a potential messiah, who will help another return to God.

Messiah or anointed is one who is strong within, traveling from place to place spreading blessings, who prays to G-d and G-d hears him, whose ‘shield’ G-d beholds.

Text 11-3: Psalm 84:6-13
Happy is the man whose strength is in you; in whose heart are highways,
that passing through the valley of Baca make it a place of springs;
the early rain also covers it with blessings.
They go from strength to strength, every one of them appears before God in Zion.
O Lord God of hosts, hear my prayer; give ear, O God of Jacob. Selah.
Behold, O God our shield, and look upon the face of your anointed (your messiah).
For a day in your courts is better than a thousand.
I had rather be at the threshold in the house of my God, than dwell in the tents of the wicked.
For the Lord God is a sun and shield;
the Lord will give loving kindness and glory;
no good thing will he withhold from those who walk uprightly.
O Lord of hosts, happy is the man who trusts in you.

We know that the messianic kingdom is in the physical world, this gift of G-d for us, so precious that we believe—the resurrection of the dead into the physical world is more then the World to Come:

Text 11-4: Messiah and the World to Come
Samuel said: “There is no difference between this world and the days of the messiah except servitude to foreign kingdoms.” Rabbi Johanan said: “All the prophets prophesied only for the days of messiah, but what concerns the World to Come ‘no eye hath seen, oh God, beside Thee, what He will do for him that waiteth for Him’ (Isaiah 64:3).”[1294]

Rav used to say: “Not like this world is the World to Come. In the World to Come there is no eating nor drinking; no procreation of children or business; no envy, or hatred, or competition; but the righteous sit, their crowns on their heads, and enjoy the splendor of the Divine Presence.”[1295]

But in this world we cling to the Tree of Life, for she is the length of our days. What is the Tree of Life? She is the Torah, our story, and our laws. She is the kabbalah, our spiritual tradition, and our inheritance. She is the simple plant we hold in our hands to bring to a new land to nourish and grow. She is G-d’s precious gift to us for our lives:

Text 11-5: Land and Plants
Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai used to say: “If there be a plant in your hand when they say to you: ‘Behold the Messiah! —Go and plant the plant, and afterward go out to greet him.”[1296]

For the messianic kingdom is the physical world, the gift of G-d that which we take care of while Hashem has loaned us bodies in this world. Moreover each animal, each plant, each rock is precious to Hashem and His righteous leader will teach so.

Ben Adam or son of man was an ennobling term for man. Adam consists of three letters, an acrostic for Adam, Moses, and David, the lineage of messiah. Adam encompassed all the souls of mankind and was also called Adam Kadmon – Primordial Man.

11.1 David

With the anointing of David, the following concept grew:[1297]

Text 11-6: Light of the Messiah
Go and see under how many layers the light of David was concealed till he was found worthy of sitting on his throne. This light was first revealed through Avraham our first father. Then it was covered and again revealed. It was again covered many times, until David became king. But in David too, the light was not revealed in all its strength, for the generations were not yet worthy. It is destined to appear in all its power in the End-of-Days, in the Messiah — the son of David.

After Avraham, this light — the light of the Messiah — was divided in two. One half was hidden in the depths of the earth, in the seed of Amon and Moab. The other half remained revealed, and passed to Itzchak, and from him to Yaakov. In Yehudah, the son of Yaakov this light began to glow and it became manifest that he was worthy of sovereignty. The light continued to shine among the sons of Peretz, the son of Yehudah. But it was covered in Egypt. It was again revealed in Nachshon, the son of Aminadav, who was among those who came out of Egypt. It remained revealed among his sons; then it was again covered till the days of Elmelech, the son of Nachshon. Of him, all had at first said: This is the man for whom we have been waiting; he will sit on Israel’s throne. But he was not worthy of the kingdom. He fled to Moab. Then God revealed the light, which had been hidden in the field of Moab. And God’s profound design was fulfilled: to ‘return’ Ruth to Beit Lechem, so that the light of the Messiah might be revealed from both of its parts at the same time. The Messiah would be born from the marriage of Boaz, the son of Shalman, the son of Nachshon, to Ruth the daughter of ... Eglon, who had ‘returned’ from the field of Moab to her origins: Avraham’s Torah of loving kindness.

When Boaz died immediately after his marriage to Ruth, darkness descended upon the world, and the light of the Messiah was covered. There were many who said: It is not God’s desire that Moab’s seed should mingle with the seed of the elect among Israel. Ruth, they said, had caused the death of Boaz. And the son she would bear from him — if she were to bear one — would perhaps be illegitimate.

For the Halakhah, which allowed the women of Moab to marry into the community of Israel, had not yet been firmly established in Israel, and there were many who protested against it.[1298] If you will examine the Megilah of Ruth, you will find that from the time when Ruth’s pregnancy is mentioned, till the end, the Elders, and all the others who were mentioned earlier—at the time of Ruth’s marriage to Boaz—‘vanish’ completely. Even Ruth, Oved’s mother, is no longer mentioned. From now on only the neighboring women concern themselves with the newborn child—who, out of compassion, as it were, sought to cover up Ruth’s part in this child—‘there is born a son to Naomi...’ (not to Ruth). It is they who give the child a name, in an effort to hearten Naomi. For the Halakhah in the matter hung, as it were, on a hair’s-breadth. None knew how to decide the Halakhah with certainty except for God Himself, Who alone knew that this Halakhah was valid: that the actions of Boaz and Ruth were for the sake of Heaven, and for the sake of revealing the light of the Messiah.

Oved grew to adulthood and all saw him to be righteous. Their courage revived, and they said: If he were illegitimate, Heaven forbid, it would not have been possible for him to be as righteous and holy as he is.

This view was further strengthened after Ishai was born, and all saw that he was completely pure, without the slightest taint of evil. Then they said: The Divine Spirit spoke through Boaz and the Elders, who permitted Ruth to enter into the congregation of the Lord. They did act in accord with the Torah.

Subsequently, there was born to Ishai six sons — and in all Beit Lechem none were as righteous and pure as they: Heroes in the strength of the Torah, and possessed in full measure of every goodly portion found in the world. There was now a triple cord: Oved, Ishai, Eliav and his brothers — this cord would not snap.[1299] Whoever was doubtful earlier said in his heart: one must never despair in the face of calamity. Now that three generations were born in purity and holiness, it was clear to all that the entire house of Ishai was pure and without blemish. From him the anticipated light within Yehudah, would come forth.

Till ... David was born and ‘a cloud of darkness coved the heaven,’ such as there never had been. And again no one knew where the light was hidden, except for God alone.

This last ‘covering’ came before the great revelation. Therefore it was a denser covering than all that had preceded it. God took the light of the Messiah and covered it from every living eye. In deep darkness, He hid the light.

There is a man who is hidden before all other men, but is not hidden from his father and his mother. There are those who are hidden before their fathers and mothers, but are revealed to others. There are even those who are hidden from everybody. How can one be hidden from the greatest of the prophets in his generation — from one in whose heart God had placed wisdom, and the capacity to see from one end of the world to the other?

Indeed, David’s secret was hidden from his father and mother, from all who dwelt in his generation and even from Shmuel the Seer, who did not know him even after he saw him. Till God said to him: ‘Arise and anoint him, for this is he.’

The Sages have said of Ishai, David’s father, that in his old age, he became doubtful of his status — because of his great fear of the slightest taint of sin. He thought: Heaven forbid, perhaps the decision of my grandfather Boaz and his Beit Din did not correspond accurately to the true Halakhah. Perhaps I am illegitimate, and I am prohibited from entering the congregation of the Lord. How can I dwell with my wife, who is a legitimate daughter of Israel, While I — perhaps I am a Moabite?

Before this dreadful doubt rose in Ishai’s heart, six sons and two daughters had already been born to him. What could avail to rectify the past? But the way of the wicked is not the way of the righteous. The way of the wicked is not to fear sin. And if they do fear it, it is the ensuing penalty that they fear. If they see themselves excessively immersed in sin, they no longer forsake sin out of fear of punishment. The righteous, however, are different since their essential fear is of sin rather than of penalty. Therefore, even when they see themselves as having committed transgression, and they find that they can no longer rectify its past effects, they nevertheless do not add in the slightest to their earlier misdeeds.

Ishai went and separated himself from his wife. He remained separated from her for many years, and his sons knew...

Since Ishai was great in righteousness, he realized: God did not create His world for naught, He fashioned it to be inhabited. And it is not proper for a person to dwell without a wife. What did he do? After many years of separation from his wife, he took a Canaanite maidservant who had been part of his household and he said to her: ‘You are conditionally freed: if I am permitted to enter the congregation of the Lord, your liberation is valid, and you are my wife in accord with the laws of Moshe and Israel. But if I am prohibited from entering the congregation of the Lord, your liberation is not valid, and you remain permitted to a Moabite.’[1300]

Ishai’s wife, who was herself pure and righteous, suffered great anguish over the fact that her righteous husband was separated from her, and she was desirous of again bearing children from him. The maidservant saw her anguish, and said to her: ‘Do with me as Leah did with her sister Rachel,’ and Ishai’s wife came in the place of the maidservant. She sanctified herself, and prayed to God. God answered her prayers: she conceived. And it was of God, that Ishai should not know of the change. Within three months his sons saw that their mother had conceived, and they said to their father Ishai: ‘See, our mother is with child by harlotry. We wish to slay her, together with the unborn one who is within her!’

At that time, Ishai felt terrible anguish, and his heart was as if dead within him. And thus did he say to his sons: ‘Let her give birth. And do not arouse slander against yourselves. Let the child be abhorred, and let him be a servant to you.’ He wanted thereby to prevent David from mingling with the people of Israel. (despite the failure to publicize the ‘illegitimacy’).

The child who was born from this conception was David. Of this David said: ‘I was estranged from my brothers:’ — (they considered me a bastard). ‘And I was alien to the sons of my mother:’ (they suspected her of harlotry).

From here we learn that the marriage of Boaz and Ruth was never fully accepted in the community. Moreover, there was never an explicit conversion of Ruth for the law allowing a Moabite woman to be accepted had not yet been established. Hence, the text states, ‘there is born a son to Naomi...’

Also, we see that Ishai’s attempt at polygamy was done out of righteousness, “God did not create His world for naught, He fashioned it to be inhabited. And it is not proper for a person to dwell without a wife.” Perhaps, it is a remnant of his Moabite past that gave him the inclination for the Canaanite maidservant making him feel that he was not of the House of Israel. If the messianic spirit can be born in a house with such inclinations; then we must be even more careful not to judge negatively our own house having far less scandal.

11.2 Haninah who brings favor

The School of R. Hanina said: His name is 'Haninah’, as it is stated, I will not give you Haninah (Jer. XVI, 13).

The yeshiva picks a name similar to its own rabbi, in recognition or belief in its Tzaddik Emes – righteous true one, who currently leads them. The lesson here is that one must believe in the righteous leader and this is the striving for moshiach.

11.3 Go’al the redeemer

Text 11-7: Isaiah 59:20
כ וּבָא לְצִיּוֹן גּוֹאֵל, וּלְשָׁבֵי פֶשַׁע בְּיַעֲקֹב --נְאֻם, יְהוָה. 20 And a redeemer will come to Zion, and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the LORD.

In modern English:
And a redeemer shall come to Zion, and to those in Jacob who turn from transgression, says the Lord.

And a redeemer shall come to Zion and to the captive for the sins in Jacob, says the Lord.
Can G-d judge sins in captivity so harshly that a redeemer will not save them?

Following the former line, I think there is a better translation:

And a redeemer shall come to Zion and Jacob shall turn from his errors, pleasing the Lord.

But this is difficult since the phrase “and to turn” and “with/in Jacob” are missing.

And a redeemer shall come to Zion and with Jacob to turn from transgression pleasing the Lord.

The turning is tshuvah – repentance of sins ‘in’ Jacob so this must be expressed:

And a redeemer shall come to Zion and in Jacobs’ transgression to make tshuvah pleasing the Lord.

The Bet that begins, ‘in or with Jacob’ seems to be the key. Jacob does not appear to be entirely the subject but in some way partly the object.

And a redeemer shall come to Zion and to turn away transgression in Jacob says the Lord.

This is problematic as well since one cannot turn away the transgression of another for each of us must repent for his or her own sins. Does Isaiah 59:20 elude to Isaiah 53? If so the redeemer is not the messiah for this is not the role of the messiah. Nor is Isaiah 53 about the messiah. Instead, this is the “Son of Man” that is spoken of throughout the prophets. Some call him, “Moshiach ben Yosef”, but that is not correct since he is not an anointed king.

To understand him is to under Joseph. Joseph was imprisoned in the dungeons of Pharaoh and he suffered for the future redemption of his own people. Joseph was the arm of Pharaoh, the bearer of his signet. He was an agent of G-d as well. When their brothers saw Joseph weeping they were brought to tshuvah in those tears for the sadness that they had all suffered over the years.

Judah represents the paradigm of moshiach, a natural ruler of his brethren for the morality of G-d.

We have two paradigms:

Son of Man


Isaiah Suffering Servant

I am beginning to favor an alternative translation entirely based on the word, ‘Shavai’ meaning ‘captivity’ – שבי instead of ‘turn’ or ‘repentance’. In this context the sentence becomes:
And a redeemer shall come to Zion and to the captive for the sins in Jacob, says the Lord.

The redeemer comes not only to Zion but also to those in captivity. At the time of Isaiah, this is referring to those in Babylonia. Jacob is in exile for his sins. Referring to the people as Jacob alludes to his state before he merited to be called Israel. Nevertheless, the redeemer will come to both. The servant is taken into captivity because of the sins of Jacob.

11.4 Meir who spreads light
11.5 Menachem the comforter

The messiah’s name is Menachem, the comforter from the Book of Lamentations, Eichah.[1301]

Text 11-8: Menachem
Over these things I weep; my eyes run with water because a comforter to revive my spirit is far from me... Because Menachem is far from me returner of my soul.

Menachem – מנחם is the gematria of Tzemach – צמח which means the sprouting or blossoming of a victory, 138.

Text 11-9: Messiah of Arbel
Drive slowly on the road to Biq’at Arbel. After all, one of the traditions connected with the place is that a Messiah, Menachem Ben-Amiel, will appear here and meet the Prophet Elijah and the sages of Israel. There is a hint at this tradition in the Jerusalem Talmud: “Once a farmer was ploughing his field at Biq’at Arbel. Suddenly his ox brayed. A passing Arab heard the braying and said: ‘Jew! Jew! Untie your ox and untie your plough because the Temple is destroyed!’ After some time the ox brayed again. The same Arab said: ‘Jew! Jew! Tie up your ox and tie up your plough because Messiah the King is born!’ The Jew said: ‘What is his name?’ The Arab replied: ‘Menachem...from the king’s capital of Judean Bethlehem.’”...

The remains of the synagogue here were mentioned by travelers many years ago. Shmuel Ben-Shimshon wrote in 1210: “And we went up to Arbel and there is the big synagogue built by Nitai the Arbelite.” At one point the graves of Jacob’s children, Dina, Levi, and Shimon, were said to be located beside the synagogue. Adam’s son Seth was also said to be buried here.[1302] Shmuel Ben-Shimshon refers to this: “and near to Arbel are three tribes of the sons of Jacob and Dina their sister and beside the flock grows a beautiful myrtle and none may take a branch from it, neither a Jew nor Ishmaelite, for fear of punishment. And near there is another sage. And the water pipe passes over it and it is covered with earth and the water falls in the spring in a kind of pit. And they say this Seth, son of the first man.”

See 26.9.5 Menachem for one historic example. The last Habad Rebbe is a modern day example.

11.6 Nehirah the light is with him
11.7 Shiloh of the time of paradise

The yeshiva of R. Shila said: The Messiah's name is ‘Shiloh’, as it is stated, Until Shiloh come (Gen. XLIX, 10), where the word is spelt שילה.

The Gematria of Shilo, 345 is Moshe Rabenu.[1303] Moshe Rabenu and Moshiach are actually one. King and Nasi and the chief rabbi are the same. The chief rabbi and president (nasi) are one in Judaism. This is implied by the letter Aleph. The vav in the middle of an Aleph represents Zer Anpin or Moshe Rabenu. The two yods on both sides are the two messiahs, moshiach ben Yosef and moshiach ben David.

11.8 Yinnon lest the Sun has waxed away

Text 11-10: Lamentations Rabbah 137:1
The yeshiva of R. Jannai said: His name is ‘Yinnon’; for it is written, E'er the sun was, his name is Yinnon (Ps. LXXII, 17).

Nun is fish in Aramaic and would not the messiah refer to them as such alluding to this secret name. Hence, we see the messianic potential in our babes who call fish by the term ‘nana’.

יז יְהִי שְׁמוֹ, לְעוֹלָם-- לִפְנֵי-שֶׁמֶשׁ, ינין (יִנּוֹן) שְׁמוֹ
וְיִתְבָּרְכוּ בוֹ; כָּל-גּוֹיִם יְאַשְּׁרוּהוּ. 17 May his name endure for ever; may his name be continued as long as the sun; may men also bless themselves by him; may all nations call him happy.

In the psalm, King David is praying for the next King of Israel and he hears his name is Yinnon, which means to rule – malchut. The commentaries say in the Atbash cipher we exchange the aleph for the tav. Exchanging Nun for Heh, we end up with Yod Heh Vav Heh. Yannai has the gematria of 71 like the Sanhedren with the crown of G-d above them. Each yeshiva chooses the messiah’s name after itself.

Text 11-11: Pesachim 54a on the name of the Messiah
Seven things were created before the world was created, and these are they: the Torah, repentance, the Garden of Eden, Gehenna, the Throne of Glory, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah...
The name of the Messiah, as it is written, His [sc. the Messiah's] name shall endure forever, and has (Yanun) exited before the sun![1304]

There is some basis to question whether Psalm 72:17, which the Gemara is quoting, is messianic.  A better translation is  "May His Name last forever before the Sun has waxed (Yinnon) away and blessed be His Name, all the nations will praise Him." The subsequent passages 72:18-20 suggest that this is all praise to G-d:

Text 11-12: Psalm 72:17-20
17. May His Name last forever before the Sun has waxed (Yinnon) away and blessed be His Name, all the nations shall praise Him.
18. Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, who alone does wondrous things.
19. And blessed be his glorious name forever; and let the whole earth be filled with his glory; Amen, and Amen.
20. The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended.

The Soncino Talmud presents this commentary on the seven things created before the world:[1305]

Text 11-13: Talmud on Psalm 72:17
Ps. LXXII, 17. — Thus the Gehenna was created before the world. — The general idea of this Baraitha is that these things are indispensable pre-requisites for the orderly progress of mankind upon earth. The Torah, the supreme source of instruction; the concept of repentance, in recognition that ‘to err is human’, and hence, if man falls, the opportunity to rise again; the Garden of Eden and the Gehenna, symbolizing reward and punishment; the Throne of Glory and the Temple, indicating that the goal of Creation is that the Kingdom of God (represented by the Temple) shall be established on earth, as it is in heaven; and finally, the name of the Messiah, i.e., the assurance that God's purpose will ultimately be achieved.

Hence, here the Messiah will ultimately help God’s purpose to be achieved. To understand the name Yinnon is to understand Psalm 72:

Text 11-14: Tanach - Psalms Chapter 72

1. A Psalm for Solomon. Give the king your judgments, O God, and your righteousness to the king’s son.
2. That he may judge your people with righteousness, and your poor with judgment.
3. Let the mountains bring peace to the people, and the hills, by righteousness.
4. May he judge the poor of the people, may he save the children of the needy, and may he break in pieces the oppressor.
5. May they fear you as long as the sun and moon endure, throughout all generations.
6. May he come down like rain that falls on the mown grass; like showers that water the earth.
7. Let the righteous flourish in his days; and let there be abundance of peace till the moon is no more.
8. May he have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river to the ends of the earth.
9. Let those who dwell in the wilderness bow down before him; and let his enemies lick the dust.
10. May the kings of Tarshish and of the islands bring presents; may the kings of Sheba and Seba offer gifts.
11. And may all kings fall down before him; may all nations serve him.
12. For he shall save the needy when he calls; the poor also, and him who has no helper.
13. He will spare the poor and needy, and will save the souls of the needy.
14. He shall redeem their soul from deceit and violence; and precious shall their blood be in his sight.
15. Long may he live, and may the gold of Sheba be given to him; may prayer be made for him continually; and may he daily be blessed.
16. May there be abundance of grain in the land, may it wave on the tops of the mountains; may its fruit be like Lebanon; and may the men of the city flourish like grass of the earth.
17. (K) May his name endure for ever; may his name be continued as long as the sun; may men be blessed in him; may all nations call him happy.
18. Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, who alone does wondrous things.
19. And blessed be his glorious name forever; and let the whole earth be filled with his glory; Amen, and Amen.
20. The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended.

The verse containing the messianic name is 72:17:

יהי שמו לעולם לפני שמש ינין [ינון]
שמו ויתברכו בו כל-גוים יאשרוהו

And let his name be forever before the Sun has ‘Ionized’ away
And all the nations shall rejoice and be blessed in his name

The key meaning of the name Yanun is ionized or evaporated away. It alludes to the Moon, which is Lavana waxing and waning away. Yanun as ‘ionization’ alludes to lightning and even the electrum that Ezekiel saw in the image of man on the throne of G-d. Before the sun has ionized away is before the end of the Sun’s life where it will become a planetary nova and finally a white dwarf.

The messiah here is like the tzaddik who absorbs the light of G-d. The light is ever emanating like the Sun, and the messiah or people in general are like the Moon receiving the light when we are good. However if we are not good, has vshalom, we are like the ‘dark side of the moon’ unable to receive the light.[1306] This is the relationship between Hochmah and Malchut where the wisdom of G-d, when our leaders are righteous, flows to the people. However if the leaders are bad than the people will not receive the light and there is only materialism, this is the kingdom of Rome, has vshalom.

In the analogy above the Shemesh – Sun, is the light of G-d and Yanun is the receptacle of the light. This is also alluded to by ‘favor’ – חן. Het is Hochmah and Nun is Malchut by the word nofel – ‘fallen’ nature of the world. When the leaders have wisdom, this is the messiah quality in the world. When there is no wisdom there is only the fallen state.[1307] The unity of the physical and spiritual brings grace to the world.

Text 11-15: Dream Yakov Newman
I had a dream Oct. 14th 2014, Ushpazim Joseph Sukkot Chol Moed. Yakov was driving a car and asked my help. He needed me to help drive his mother and sisters for a surgery at a medical center on the border of the Sinai desert and Egypt. This was a very difficult road and I wasn’t sure that I could drive it safely either. He said that he would ask someone else if I did not say yes. In the end I said yes, but I awoke thinking I should have said yes right away.

Earlier I was invited to play some tennis with a very tall person playing with a wooden raquet. I explained afterwards, I used to play better before my shoulder got injured.

What this has to do with Yanun is that Yakov Newman lives in Jerusalem and was a good friend and teacher to my family and me when he lived in Utah. He is an aspect of the messiah.

The name Yanun by ionizing the Sun is an aspect of Nothingness, which is precisely how we receive the favor of G-d.[1308]

Text 11-16: Levi Yitzhak of Berditchev on G-d’s Continuous Sustenance
The most important thing to realize is that God created all and that He is all. God’s influence never ceases. At every instant, He gives existence to His creation, to all the universes, to the heavenly chambers, and to all the angels....

We therefore say [in the prayer before the Sh’ma], “He forms light and creates darkness” [in the present tense], and not “He formed light and created darkness” [in the past tense]. We say that God “creates” in the present tense because every second he creates and gives existence to all that is. Everything comes from God. He is perfect and He includes all things.

When a person attains the attribute of Nothingness, he realizes that he is nothing, and that God is giving him existence. He can then say that God “creates” – in the present tense. This means that God is creating, even at this very moment. When a person looks at himself and not at Nothingness, then he is on a level of “somethingness” [and independent existence]. He then says that God “created” – in the past tense. This means that God created him earlier [but that he now has independent existence].

We therefore say the blessing, “[Blessed are You, O God...] who created man with wisdom.” [We use the past tense,] since Wisdom is on a level of “somethingness.” We therefore find in the writings of the Ari that the expression, “God is King,” is an aspect of Nothingness. For when we say that “God is King” [in the present tense] it means that He is presently giving us existence. This is the aspect of Nothingness – we are nothing, and it is God who is giving us the power [to exist.].

On the level of Nothingness, everything is above the laws of nature. On the level of “somethingness,” on the other hand, all things are bound by nature. The way in which we bind “somethingness” to Nothingness is through the Torah and commandments. This is the meaning of the verse, “The Living Angels ran and returned” (Ezekiel 1:14) – [that is, from a level of Nothingness to one of “somethingness.”]...

Here Yanun is the messianic/Nothingness aspect of Malchuts that attaches to the shefa/somethingness aspect of Hochmah. This is when the daughter - בת is with her father - אבא. From this connection grace flows.

Yanun means to rule, malchuts. In the alphabet Atbash, Aleph for Tets, Bets for the Hes and so on. With the nun and heh interchanged, yod nun vav nun becomes yod heh vav heh.

11.9 Isaiah’s Cyrus

Isaiah calls Cyrus the messiah when he sees that Cyrus may act as the agent of God permitting the return of the Israelites to their homeland.[1309]

11.10 Messiah ben Joseph

Hazal teaches that there are two types of leaders or messianic qualities. Joseph who was Pharaoh’s assistant displayed intelligence, patience, careful planning and quiet fortitude. Judah, on the other hand, took Tamar in a rash moment while possessing the strength and respect of his brethren. The reconciliation of these two brothers is the reconciliation of the house of Israel and repeats itself throughout Jewish history.[1310]

Judah to David – Joseph to Jonathon

David is of the spiritual lineage of Judah while Jonathon is of the spiritual lineage of Joseph. Jonathon loved David because he saw how David united the people and was beloved by them. This was the love of messiah son of Joseph for messiah son of Judah, who wished only to spiritually prepare the world for the righteous warrior king, who will fight G-d’s battles and return the people to the holy land of Israel.

Yet, from Ovadiah we learn that Messiah ben Joseph will wage the war of Armageddon and that he will die in this war. Similarly, Jonathon died in battle against the Philistines. Messiah ben David will inherit the kingdom after the war and rule in peace.[1311]

Text 11-17: Samuel 2:1:23: David’s lamentation

Saul and Jonathan were beloved and pleasant in their lives,
and not parted in their deaths,
neither by swift eagles, nor by fierce lions.

11.11 Ephraim

Perhaps another name for Messiah ben Joseph referred to in the Pesikta Rabbatai of the 9th century.

Text 11-18: Pesikta Rabbatai 36:1-2
The Holy One, blessed be He, will reply, “He is the Messiah, and his name is Ephraim, My true Messiah, who will pull himself up straight and will pull up straight his generation, and who will give light to the eyes of Israel and deliver his people; and, no nation or people will be able to withstand him, as is said (Psalm 89:23), “The enemy shall not do him violence, nor the son of wickedness afflict him.”

There is some aspect of his reign that will accompany suffering for the sins of his people.

11.12 Peretz and Zerach

Judah and Tamar had twin sons. The name of the first is Peretz from the idea of bursting forth. The second’s name Zerach means to continuously shine.[1312] Together they allude to the light of moshiach that breaks through all obstacles.[1313]

Text 11-19: Genesis 38 on the sons of Judah and Tamar
26. And Judah acknowledged them, and said, She has been more righteous than I; because I did not give her to Shelah my son. And he knew her again no more.
27. And it came to pass in the time of her labor, that, behold, twins were in her womb.
28. And it came to pass, when she labored, that one put out his hand; and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying, “This came out first.”
29. And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold, his brother came out; and she said, What a breach you have made for yourself. Therefore his name was called Perez.
30. And afterward came out his brother, who had the scarlet thread upon his hand; and his name was called Zarah.

Peretz is the ancestor of David and thus, identified with messianic leadership. Zerach too alludes to the light of messiah.

Is the yearning for messiah the yearning for the ubermensch, the overman, or great person who serves the welfare of mankind? The longing to have a child who overcomes the burdens of today is almost a universal desire. The modern idea of the messiah seems to be this mental archetype engrained in the human psyche. To believe in messiah today resembles believing in the potential of a child to grow up and save the world in some manner. Is this the principle of the First Man – Adam Kadmon, that all are connected to? Is this an original idea in the Torah?

11.13 Messiah ben David

Messiah ben David bears the scepter and kingship of the house of Israel. He acquires this role from messiah ben Joseph as David acquired his position with the permission of Jonathon. The earliest messianic text showing the duality of messiah is in Numbers. Here we find that the star possesses the qualities of Joseph while the scepter is that of Judah. Both are essential in leadership. The Star prepares the way for the Scepter.[1314]

Text 11-20: Two types of messiah
I shall see him, but not now; I shall behold him, but not near; there shall come a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel, and shall strike the corners of Moab, and destroy all the sons of Seth.

Ovadiah explains that Jacob represents Joseph here.[1315] The scepter refers to the rulership of Judah.

11.14 Raising Moshiach

There is the mitzvah to await the messiah in each generation. The Chofetz Chayim kept a packed suitcase next to his bed with anticipation of returning to Israel under the leadership of messiah. The commandment goes further. We should look for the spark of moshiach even in our own children and prepare them with the education that they will need. The spark of moshiach could only enter the Jewish people through a Ger – a convert (see 14.14.2). Even in successive generations one should view the marriage of a Ger as hastening the arrival of moshiach, the raising of great Jewish leadership. Because great leadership inspires the Jewish people, raising moshiach is an important principle.

11.15 Euphoria and Spiritual Similarity

Some feel the spirit when hearing their national anthem, Taps, or Amazing Grace. Some feel the spirit when contemplating the sacrifice of another, or learning a pervasive teaching devoid of selfishness. Some feel the spirit when watching a flag being raised (nasi). What is its source? What is its reality?

Text 11-21: Genesis 1:2
And a wind from God moved upon the face of the waters.

A Midrash teaches the first wind passing over the waters was the messianic spirit that existed at the beginning of time, even in the thought of God. This spirit is the saving agent of G-d, his Right Hand, rescuing us from harm. Key to the sense of spirit is humility to recognize the wonder of life. A song pulls the soul outside itself. A sermon raises the consciousness to a higher being. Suffering and regret, has vshalom, return us to a sense of right and wrong.

A mystical principle teaches that a small physical movement while sleeping can move thousands of miles in a dream.[1316] Similarly, a movement of only a hair’s breadth in a dream can traverse thousands of miles in the physical realm.[1317] True distance is spiritual similarity. While the Torah forbids placing our faith in men,[1318] each of us possesses a messianic spark that unites us by spiritual similarity.[1319] This is the spiritual chill of the messianic spirit.

Spiritual similarity crosses religious bounds, as one can feel the spirit while listening to the songs of others. The spiritual chill that one feels while hearing references to a savior are not theological, but a sense of the first wind or spirit over the waters. Similarity of spirit unifies folks regardless of theology. Sometimes an opening of love or caring is its source.[1320]

Rabbi Nachman of Breslov taught the principle that distance is based on spirit not space or time.  Furthermore, by spiritually resembling a tzaddik emet,[1321] one can unite others.  Hence, while we should only have faith in G-d, we can believe in the coming of his salvation, and by spiritual similarity experience messianic euphoria. For example, for Breslov Hasidim, the Saba Letter song (My fire shall burn until the coming of mashiach) reminds a hasid of his closeness with his rebbe,[1322] by similarity in spirit and love. “The basic theme is that if any two objects have the same quality, they are at their root the *same object*.”[1323] This is also the principle of Adam Kadmon, the First Man who embodied all souls and “HaShem created Man, and before the fall in the Garden of Eden, he was referred to as the Perfect Man (or Primordial Man). Moshiach either is, or is an aspect of this Perfect Man.”[1324] Hence, all souls can attach to moshiach and by resemblance become closer still. That man is created in the image of G-d alludes to the tzaddik whose behavior should resemble G-d’s attributes. One of those qualities was the ‘descent’ of the tzaddik to help raise the souls of others back to Hashem. Descent is the wrong word. The tzaddik would adopt the culture of those he befriended. Then he would seek within for his own flaws. By correcting his own flaws he would elevate those he befriended in the same flaw.

Moshe rabbenu epitomized the tzaddik, who like a faithful shepherd to his flock was more concerned about Israel than his own status or well-being.[1325] Rabbi Nachman’s Azamra, “I will sing” teaches that even the wicked have a modicum of good that one can recognize. When one sees this good point, the wickedness is no more.[1326]

Christians praying to God, close their prayer in Jesus’ name. They believe he suffered and died so that they may live. Their contriteness leads to self-sacrifice, encouraging them in similar good deeds and reinforcing close feelings to a savior.

11.16 Tzaddik Emet

In Hasidism, this is the belief that the soul of Moshe is the soul of the messiah and that she reincarnates for up to seven generations.[1327] This does not imply a faith in a semi-divine messiah as Moses was not perfect and so the messiah will be imperfect. Nevertheless, there is a belief that this soul can help correct the fallen soul of man.[1328]

Text 11-22: Tzaddik HaDor - The Tzaddik of the Generation

By R. Nati:
There is confusion regarding the idea of the Tzaddik Hador, the righteous leader of the generation. There are many tzaddikim, many righteous men, rabbis, teachers, and hidden ones. But there is only one Tzaddik Hador, and if we merit he becomes the Tzaddik Emet.

Tzaddik Emet is the soul of “Moshe – Moshiach”, the redeemer. Throughout history there have been and only will be seven times, 7 gigulim of the neshamah (7 re-entries into this world of the essence of the soul) of Moshe Rabbenu (Moses our Teacher), the soul of the Moshe Moshiach (Zohar Parsha Mishpatim and Ari Zal - Shaarei Gigulim). These times have been: Moshe Rabbenu (Moses our Teacher), some count David HaMelekh (King David), Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai (Rashbi), the Ari Hakodesh, the Baal Shem Tov, some count Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, some count the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rebbe Menachem Mendel Schneersohn of Habad. We are presently waiting for the last manifestation - in Moshiach.

(According to Breslov, Rebbe Nachman was 5th in this line. His Torah is the Torah of this, the last generation. He said his fire would burn until the Moshiach, and that Moshiach would be a descendant of his. See Chai Morahran, in English the books Tzaddik and Until Moshiach by Breslev Research Institute.)

But we were discussing the Tzaddik Hador. The last know widely accepted (by the majority of Jews) Tzaddik Hador was the Rebbe of Habad.

Mordechai was the Tzaddik Hador in the time of the Purim story. Reb Nosson of Breslev teaches us some awesome details about this in Likutey Chalchot, Hilchos Purim... The tzaddik hador is the most spiritually awake person alive. He not only has the ability to find and wake up the souls of Am Israel, he can if we help him wake up the Divine presence. The Purim story is not just a story of Mordechai and Ester, but the story of the tzaddik HaDor and the Shechina, the Divine Presence. (More on this in a future post, Hashem willing.)

As the Zohar teaches us – everyone is against or afraid of the idea of there having to be a tzaddik. HaTzaddik, "THE" Tzaddik, HaDor - namely the Tzaddik of "THIS" generation. The Holy Zohar teaches (Zohar I, 28a): "Woe to the world for they do not provide help for the Shechina (Divine Presence) during the exile, or for Moshe (i.e. the Tzaddik), who is always with Her and never moves from Her... Moshe did not die. He is called Adam. Of Adam it is written (Bereishit 2:20), 'And Adam had no helpmate'. This applies to the last exile: Adam – the Tzaddik – has no helpmate. Everyone is against the Tzaddik".

May we all sincerely and wholeheartedly turn to Hashem in prayer and seek out, support and reveal the Shechina hidden within the exile along with Her helpmate 'HaTZaDDiK HaDoR' Amen.

Reb Nosson of Breslev wrote, “and the Tzadik HaEmet this is Rebbenu Nachman ben Simcha ben Feiga. The Tzaddik is gadol v'yoteir efilu more so than the kohen gadol who is the one who is in front and inside. Like it is brought in Sotah perek chaf daled 24 ‘lefney and bifnim penimi, me li? Who is this, who is in front and inside? me he? penimim? Who is this inside? He is more precious than the kohen gadol because he can repair averot that Yom Kippur can not fix.’ It says in tractate Yoma, ‘the sins between man and Hashem are repaired on Yom Kippur.’ The Tzaddik HaEmet can repair sins between man and his fellow. This is higher than the kodesh hakodeshim! Gevalt!”

The talmid chochom, the Tzaddik HaEmet, like it is brought in Yoma daf peh vav that Yom Kippur fixes these sins but not those. The Tzaddik HaEmet can go in further and higher than the kodosh hakodoshim and to a place where the kohen gadol cannot reach. The Tzaddik HaEmet can reach a place more holy and closer to Hashem, to repair what cannot be repaired on Yom Kippur. Like it says in Mishlei, perek tet zain, 16:14 “The Kings wrath is like the angels of death, but the wise man, the talmid chochom/Tzaddik HaEmet will appease it.” Reb Nosson explains the pasuk like this: there are sins that enter even unto Hashem, has v'shalom, and even Yom Kippur does not appease, but the Tzaddik HaEmet knows how to appease them. That’s why he is higher than the kohen gadol.
The Beis Hamikdash repairs only those things that are between man and Hashem. But the Tzaddik HaEmet knows how to Kippur/appease the sins between man and his fellow man. The soul of the Tzaddik HaEmet comes from a place higher than this so he is able to make wonderful repairs!

Let's be straight here. Tachlis b'shetach, we are ALL very very far away from the truth! There is a gap between us and Hashem. What is our avodah (divine service)? Klum shum davar (nothing)! Our merits are nothing! We cannot even focus in this generation for a moment on our prayers. Or guard our eyes from looking at the most putrid of things in this lowly world! There is not one of us who has not fallen very far from the truth! The idea of kedushah atzmei, 'personal holiness' is far far from almost all of us! Which one of us has not once in this year had even a parve thought that has not taken us away from Hashem for just a second, not to mention all the evil thoughts that come upon us. What kind of pagamim (defects) we have created every minute in this coma we call life???

But don't worry, Hashem has not left us without hope. Every generation He sends us tzaddikim to help show us the way, and every so many generations a very special neshama (soul), the neshama of Moshiach, the exact same neshama as Moshe rabaynu, the exact same neshama as Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai, the exact same neshama as the Baal Shem Tov...

▪ Nice article but Mashiach ben David’s soul the Rebbe of Habad! is a neshamah klali encompassing soul of all Israel this is slightly different then how you described. As well Mashiach ben Yosef’s soul is of Gevurah and the shoresh of Pinchas according to the GRA, the Zohar says Mashiach ben Yosef’s soul has to do with the transmigration of the wicked king Yeruvum ben Nevat. The Ariz”l taught mainly Chaim Vital because his soul was of Rabbi Akiva who was judgment of Kain and of Mashiach ben Yosef .

By Anonymous, at May 28, 2009 4:23 AM

The story is told of two tzaddikim. One dresses in a warm coat and fur hat to stay warm. The other has little clothing, but lights a fire to keep. While, the first was wise in preparation, the latter’s action brings others around to share in the warmth.

11.17 Unity

God said to Samuel that the people betrayed Him and not the prophet in requesting a king to be like the other nations. Yet, God relents and tells Samuel to grant the people’s wish. Still, there is a midrash that says the name of the Messiah was conceived before the creation of the world. There seems to be a contradiction here for why would God plan to appoint a messiah if only He is the true Redeemer.

The role of the messiah is to turn the people back to G-d. This is similar to the Tzaddik Emet, described above, or a righteous leader who steers his people back to Hashem. The various yeshivas of Europe named the messiah after their own leaders, for example, Meir, Haninah, and Menachem. Though this seems to be self-centered, the point is that the people are striving for a leader and this is a striving for unity.

The key messianic principle is unity. The messiah unifies the Jewish people to work together and grow together and in this manner turns them back to God. The reason God told Samuel to grant them a king was for the sake of unity, so that the Jewish people will be united in their battles against their enemies and united to build the Kingdom of G-d in this world.

11.18 Dark Thunder

Dark Thunder epitomized the messiah for the Sioux Indians. He would appear in times of need to save his people. Then he would disappear back into the wilderness of Hashem from whence he came. His paw could sweep aside the enemy in a single pass. His intelligence would direct help to those in need. Dark thunder was a grizzly bear and also a kind of messiah for the Sioux.

11.19 Jesu

For Christians the abstract G-d was too difficult to hold on to and so they personified Him and incarnated Him into their messiah. This quasi-idolatry gave them 100% faith in the deeds of one human being for good or bad and beyond question. From here the unselfish potential of humanity rises to the quintessential example of what we can be; nevertheless, accompanied by a berating of the very people who were the source of the education and environment of their savior.

[1292] Isaiah 45:1
[1293] Talmudic Aggadah, trans. by Nahum N. Glatzer, Judaic Tradition, p.238
[1294] Shabbat 63a
[1295] Berachot 17a
[1296] Ibid, p.239
[1297] Book of the Heritage, vol. 2, pp. 137-142. Also see Figure 14-2: Cain and Abel p.315.
[1298] See 2.5.4 Ki Teitzei Deuteronomy 23 and 2.34 Ezra. Was there a prohibition against marrying a Moabite then, since it is not mentioned in the story of David? Samuel would have known.
[1299] Text 2-302: Ecclesiastes 12:14, p.253
[1300] See 2.5.4 Ki Teitzei Deuteronomy 23 for the prohibition Klal Hashem – Community (congregation) of Hashem. What does not make sense here is Ishai’s pursuit of polygamy which was not popular amongst Israelites. Similarly King David and King Solomon would succumb to the same desires. However, King Saul remained pure here. Also the anguish that Ishai caused his wife out of a theological doubt seems questionable. Would God overlook the tears of Ishai’s wife for the sake of Ishai’s self-righteousness?
[1301] Lamentations 1:16
[1302] Off the Beaten Track in Israel a guide to beautiful places, Ori Devir, Adama Books, New York, 1989, pp.78-79.
[1303] Rabbi Aryeh Rosenfeld, Eyn Yaacov - Sanhedrin #25, 98,
[1304] Soncino Talmud Pesachim 54a on Psalm 72:17.
[1305] Soncino Talmud Pesachim 54a:n31
[1306] Lekutey Moharan, Rabbi Nachman of Breslov
[1307] Ibid. Yakov Newman of Salt Lake City taught this text during his Shavuot 5763 all night learning.
[1308] Levi Yitzhak of Berditchev, Meditation and Kabbalah, trans. Aryeh Kaplan pp. 303-304.
[1309] See 2.10.6 Isaiah 56 p.197
[1310] See 31.1.10 Atonement story p.315
[1311] See 2.16 Ovadiah
[1312] Bahir 197
[1313] Living with Moshiach, Rabbi J. Immanuel Schochet, p. 40.
[1314] Numbers 24:17
[1315] See 2.16 Ovadiah 1:18
[1316] Close objects in the physical world can be far away in spiritual content.
[1317] Similar spiritual entities or beings may be far away in the physical world.
[1318] See Text 26-5: Numbers 23:19; See 2.25.20 Psalm 146:3
[1319] See Emunah Hochamim
[1320] Cultic
[1321] True righteous person, i.e. Moses, Shimon Bar Yohai, Rabbi Nachman of Breslov
[1322] Substitute for the name of Rabbi Nachman of Breslov used by his followers.
[1323] See Nachal Novea Makor Hochmah last post
[1324]See Nachal Novea Makor Hochmah
[1325] See Belief in the Tzaddikim
[1326] See Psalm 37 and 16 To Hell and Back and 2.25.2 Psalm 2
[1327] See Belief in the Tzaddikim
[1328] Also see Text 3-11: Faith in the tzaddikim

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