# 8 Time

The Bible emphasizes the significance of time over space. There are holy times of the year, holidays to remember, seasons that we change with. With time we learn to change our focus throughout the year, expanding our consciousnesses. Time also teaches us how to make the most of space. The significance of days in this world supersedes reward in the world to come. We do not deny this world, but embrace her. We embrace all of her seasons, all of the times of the year. Similarly, we embrace nature in all the beauty of her seasons and in all the ways she renews us.

The Hebrew year leads the English year by 3760 years. Hence in 2007, the Hebrew year is 5767. A simple rule to remember is that the year modulo 10 is the same. More properly this is the Hebrew year between January 1st and September’s Rosh Hashanah.

Equation 8-1: Converting from English Year to Hebrew Year
 Jan 1st – Rosh Hashanah Rosh Hashanah – Dec. 31st Hebrew year = English year + 3760 English year + 3761 English year = Hebrew year – 3760 Hebrew year – 3761

Another example, in the Book of Esther we find the following small letters in the judgment of the sons of Haman – תשז – 707 followed by their execution.[877] In this century this would be the year 5707. The corresponding English year would be 1946:[878]

Equation 8-2: Execution of Ten Nazi Leaders
English year = 5707 – 3761 = 1946
The Nierenberg tribunal executed ten former Nazi leaders on Oct. 16th 1946
Rosh Hashanah that year was September 26th, 1946, so we use the 2nd formula

Text 8-1: Execution of the Ten Sons of Haman
The ten sons of Haman, son of Hamdas, oppressor of the Jews, they killed.

## 8.1 Dimensions [TABLE]

The Hagim – חגים – Holidays sanctify time in our world. Judaism emphasizes the sanctity of time over space. In the Tree of Life, the transition from Hochmah to Binah, past conscious to future conscious, denotes time. The six sefirot from Hesed to Yesod are the six directions denoting space. The crown sefira Keter with Malchuts denotes the moral dimension of reality.[879]

Table 8-1: Jewish Dimensions
 Sefira Sefira Meaning Dimension Keter Crown Goodness – spiritual Hochmah Wisdom Past – unified consciousness Binah Understanding Future – analytical consciousness Hesed Kindness South Gevurah Severity North Tiferet Beauty East Netzah Victory Up Hod Thankfulness Down Yesod Foundation West Malchut Kingdom Baseness – physical

## 8.2 Day

The day can be divided into 24 hours, which consist of 24 courts or watches. There is an angel overseeing each court and he who knows all their names and functions can redeem perform a Pidyon – redemption. Messianic tradition holds that in each generation there is only one person who has the potential to know them all. Since that person is not known, all who desire may strive to obtain this knowledge? Clues to this mystery are discussed in Sefer Yetzirah.

The day of God, caveyahoo - כביכול,[880] is divided into four parts. The first quarter is a time for Torah learning. The second quarter is a time of judgment like Rosh Hashanah and is the manifestation of Din or the natural law of G-d by His name Elohim. This refers to those who choose the daily judgment of G-d as a sign of intimacy. The third quarter corresponds to mercy manifested by G-d’s nourishment of all living creatures. In the final quarter of the day Hashem, caveyahoo, plays with the Leviathan fish in the oceans.[881] The Leviathan represents the reuniting of body and soul as will occur in the world to come. In the nighttime Hashem rides upon his angels (Keruvim) of light through 18000 worlds. When we see the lightning flashing though the night sky we know that Hashem is traveling upon his chariot and in each place, angels call out, “Praise to the Lord of hosts.”

## 8.3 Months [TABLE]

G-d created the constellations with the twelve elemental Hebrew letters in their respective order.[882] The names of the corresponding months are from Babylonia. A few of the original Hebrew names are in the Tanach.

Text 8-2: Goodly Creatures and Goodly Trees
R. Joshua said: Whence do we know that the patriarchs were born in Nissan? Because it says, and it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year in the month of Ziv — that is, the month in which the brilliant ones [zewthane] of the world were born. But how does he explain the expression ‘month of Ethanim’? — It means, [the month] which is strong in religious duties. What does the other make of the expression ‘in the month of Ziv’? — It means, the month in which there is splendor for the trees, for so Rab Judah has said: When a man goes abroad in the days of Nissan and sees trees blossoming, he should say, ‘Blessed is He that hath not left His world short of anything and has created therein goodly creatures and goodly trees to rejoice mankind’.[883]

Text 8-3: Blessing over Trees Blossoming
áøåê ùìà çéñø îòåìîå ëìåí, åáøà áå áøéåú èåáåú åàéìðåú èåáåú ìäúðàåú áäï áðé àãí.

While there are twelve months in the Hebrew calendar, they are not for the twelve signs of the constellations. Hence, astrological signs are according to the solar calendar.[884]

Text 8-4: Solar Months and Solar Signs
All the stars of the hour minister to the seven planets whose names are: Sun, Venus, Mercury, the Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars...

All of them (the planets) minister to the twelve constellations[885] which correspond to the twelve (solar) months. The constellations are: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. All the constellations minister to the days of the sun.[886]

Now the days of the solar month are 30 days, 10 hours and a half, and each constellation ministers to the days of the solar month for two days and a half, so that two constellations are over five days.[887] The chief which begins at the beginning of the solar month is the same chief which completes at the end of the solar month; the one which opens is the one which closes.

The great cycle of the sun is 28 years, and therein are seven small cycles each of four years. (in the order of Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon)

The order was believed to be from the farthest to the closest to the Earth, although this is a partial order and distances also vary by oribital positions.

The Sun signs follow the progression of the sun through the months while the Moon signs follow the progression of the moon through the signs. Due to the progression of the equinoxes, astrological signs do not correspond with star constellations. The signs are the visions of the spirit upon the lights of creation beyond the physical location of the stars.

The lunar calendar, which inserts a corrective thirteenth month every three years, varies from the astrological signs, which vary from the physical constellations. Nevertheless, the lunar calendar determines the new month and subsequently all the Jewish holidays of the year.[888]

Text 8-5: Moon/Lunar and Sun/Solar Jealousy Solution
“And God made the two great lights” (Gen 1:16). Rivalry ensued between them, one said to the other, I am bigger than thou art. The other rejoined, I am bigger than thou art.

What did the Holy One, blessed be He, do, so that there should be peace between them? He made the one larger and the other smaller, as it is said, “The greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night and the stars he also made”.

Like a husband and wife, each accepts her greater strengths and weaknesses in different circumstances and situations. While women are capable of doing many more activities than most men, they still find us useful for some things.

Table 8-2: Months, Letters, Constellations, Holidays, and Houses
 Months Hebrew Letter Constellation Holidays House # Nissanניסן - ~ AprilAviv[889] – אביב Heh ה – Aries the RamT’leh – טלה PesachSefirat haOmer(Counting of the Omer) Growth1 Iyar – אייר~ MayZiv[890] – זו Vav ו - Taurusthe BullShor שור - Sefirat haOmerYom Hatzmaut(Israel Independence) Possessions2 Sivan- סיון~ June Zayin – ז Geminithe TwinsTeumim תאומים – Sefirat haOmer Shavuot Attraction3 Tamuz – תמוז~ July Het – ח Cancerthe CrabSartan סרטן – 3 Mourning Weeks Ancestors4 Av – אב~ August Tet – ט Leothe LionAri אריה – Tish B’Av Descendants5 Elul – אלול~ September Yod – י Virgothe VirginBetulah בתולה – Selichos HealingWork6 Tishrei – תשרי~ OctoberEthanim[891] - אתנים Lamed – ל Librathe ScalesMaznayim מאזנים – Rosh Hashanah Yom KippurSukkothShemini Etzeret Coition7 Cheshvan – חשון~ November Nun – נ Scorpiothe Scorpionthe EagleAkrav – עקרב Death8 Kislev – כסלו~ December Samech – ס Sagittariusthe ArcherKeshet – קשת Hanukah Travel9 Tevet – טבת~ January Ayin – ע Capricornthe KidGedi – גדי Tenth of Tevet Government10 Shevat – שבט~ February Tzadi – צ Aquariusthe Water DrawerDeli – דלי New Year of Trees Friends11 Adar – אדר~ March Koof – ק Piscesthe FishDagim – דגים Ta’anit EstherPurim Enemies12

The Sefer Yetzirah describes the ruling personal qualities of the constellations. These correspond to the particularly trait in each sign that must be expressed regularly for a being under the influence of the sign to feel a sense of joy and balance.[892] Of course in each of us there is a touch of each element below that must be satisfied. Nevertheless, the Sun sign indicates the primary source of psychological balance for each sign. The key is what one struggles with in this life to self-actualize. With the Hebrew letters Hashem endowed the heavens and identified qualities in people. When the twain meet, natural and actualized character, there is joyful bliss and complete harmony.

Table 8-3: Constellations, Tribes, Qualities, and Psychological Balances
 Constellation TribeLetterTime of Year Quality The Key to Balance For This Sign Aries The RamT’leh – טלה Reubenה3/20-4/20 Speechשיחהconversation Aries achieves joy and balance by speaking a lot. Taurusthe BullShor – שור Simeonו4/20-5/21 Thoughtהרהור Taurus achieves joy and balance by active thought.This is constructive thought. Geminithe TwinsTeumim – תאומים Leviז5/21-6/21 Motionהלוךwalking Gemini achieves joy and balance by motion. This includes active sports or physical work. For the Levi this was traveling throughout Israel making peace. Cancerthe CrabSartan – סרטן Judahח6/21-7/22 Sightראיה Cancer achieves joy and balance by pleasant sights. This includes living in a well-decorated house and seeing beautiful sights. Leothe LionAri – אריה Issacharט7/22-8/23 Hearingשמיעה Leo achieves joy and balance by hearing others speak. This includes attending comedies, conferences, conventions, lectures, plays, operas, and speeches. Virgothe VirginBetulah – בתולה Zebulunי8/23-9/23 Actionמעשהdoing Virgo achieves joy and balance by action. This includes activities on a chore list. Librathe ScalesMaznayim – מאזנים Benjaminל9/23-10/23 Coitionתשמיש Libra achieves a balanced state of mind through coition. Scorpiothe ScorpionAkrav – עקרב Danנ10/23-11/22 Smellריח Scorpio acquires a balanced state of mind through smell. This may be the smell of flowers, nature, or love. Sagittariusthe ArcherKeshet – קשת Naftaliס11/22-12/21 Sleepשינה Sagittarius achieves a balanced state of mind by extra sleep. Capricornthe KidGedi – גדי Gadע12/21-1/20 Angerרוגזrage, wrath Capricorn knows how to control his anger, unlike the other signs and through this achieves a balanced mind. Aquariusthe Water DrawerDeli – דלי Asherצ1/20-2/19 Tasteלעיטהswallowing Aquarius achieves a balanced state of mind by tasting good foods. This includes cooking classes, eating out, and preparing tasteful meals. Avoid boring the Aquarian, who is guided by the planet Uranus and you will avoid her depression. Piscesthe FishDagin – דגים Josephק2/19-3/20 Laughterשחוק Pisces achieves a balanced state of mind through laughter. This includes being with a group of friends regularly.

The Twelve Tribes above are in the order of Exodus 1:2-5.[893]

### 8.3.1 Nissan

And you shall count this as your first month, for I took you at of Egypt at this time. The letter ה – heh denotes holiness since the letter occurs twice in the name of G-d representing both the attribute of Binah and Malchuts. The relationship here is G-d like a mother to her daughter Israel. There is a lot of conversation and differences of opinion, but the two love each other and support each other through the trials of Egypt.

#### 8.3.1.1 Passover

Make amends, repair our fences, we want moshiach now. The Baal Shem Tov called the last day of Pesach Moshiach Seudah. The Book ‘Today is the Day’ or Sefer ‘Hayom Yom’ comments that the previous Habad Rebbe made a meal and there were 310 students and 18 tables. The 310 students represent the 310 storehouses saved up for the righteous in the world to come and the 18 tables represent eternal life.

Text 8-6: Tzvi Freeman
Those who study the kabbalah understand
That there are infinite worlds beyond ours and
Beyond the worlds of the angels,
All filled with divine light,
Beauty and oneness

But know also that all these are but a means to an end;
All were brought into being with a single purpose:
God desires to be at home within your mundane world.

Levi Yitzhak of Berditchev said the secret of the holiday name of Pesach lies in the Song of Songs phrase, “I am my beloved’s, and my beloved is mine.”[894] When Hashem saw that we did not wait for the dough to rise when we left Egypt, He called the holiday the Festival of Matzot because of our swiftness. Still, we call the holiday Pesach because Hashem passed over our houses and slew only the Egyptians. Like two lovers we remember more the kindness of our beloved and honor the day more with His action overlooking our own deeds.

##### 8.3.1.1.1 Matza
On Passover we place three Matzot on the table specifically for the Seder. Habad teaches that they represent all the Jewish people as one is for the Cohen, another is for the Levi, and the third is for Israel. The initials of the names, spell the word CLY – כלי that means vessel. When we are united we are a vessel for receiving G-d’s blessing, but if we are divided we can hold nothing good, Has vShalom.[895]

The blessing over matzah is said over two whole pieces and one broken piece to remind us that this is the ‘lechem onei’, a bread of affliction or literally a poor person’s bread. Two blessings are recited at the seder (motzi, and a’chilus), since there is a specific mitzvah to eat matzah (a’chilus matzah). Outside the seders one can recite motzi. The motzi acknowledges G-d as the creator who brought forth the wheat out of the ground and is always required. A’chilus matzah is for the commandment to eat matzah.
##### 8.3.1.1.2 Seder plate
The seder plate has a kabbalistic arrangement according to the Ariz”l:[896]

Text 8-7: Ariz"l seder plate
The fact of the matter is that the Lurianic writings say something entirely different about the arrangement of the Seder plate, and there is not the slightest reference to the Shield of David: ‘And as for the priest, thou shalt put to thy right the lamb shank bone - zro'a (symbol of the Passover sacrifice) - זרוע, representing the Emanation of Grace; and opposite it, to the left, the egg – beitzah (symbol of life) - ביצה, representing Might; and between and under them the bitter herb – maror (symbol of the bitterness of slavery) - מרור, representing Glory. And the chopped apples and nuts mixed with wine – harosset (symbol of the mortar the Israelite slaves made for the bricks in Egypt) - חרסת shall be put beneath the zro'a, representing Everlastingness - Netzah; and opposite it, under the egg, the parsley – Karpas (symbol of rebirth and spring) - כרפס, representing Majesty - Hod; and the horseradish – hazaret (chopped bitter herbs) - חזרת, which is later eaten between two matzot, under the bitter herb, representing Foundation - Yesod.’ We see, therefore, that these six elements of the Seder are to be arranged on the plate to represent the six Cabalistic Emanations, in the form of two triangles, one under the other, and not crossed over each other; this arrangement does not even suggest the Shield of David.

##### 8.3.1.1.3 Seventh day of Passover
On the seventh day of Passover, the pious would stay up all night and study Torah (written and oral) dealing with the splitting of the Reed Sea. Yet, the event that happened on this day is not explicitly linked because we do not celebrate the destruction of the wicked. Instead the song that all Israel sung is linked and Miriam’s song with the women and their tumbrels and their dancing. There was such a great rejoicing in G-d’s salvation that the people could not sleep that night. Thousands of years later, people would still sense the emotional elation. Moreover the people wished to forever remain on the beaches of the sea beholding the glory of G-d. Today we look at pictures of the beaches of the Sinai and the Israeli tourists vacationing, disregarding terrorist threats as indicative of the same elation at the same time 3000 years ago. The revelation on this day at that time excelled the level experienced by any of the later prophets. Hashem used an eastern (dry) wind as his instrument for the splitting of the sea to teach us that all aspects of nature are under his command. Hence, when a Jew looks at natural events, he seeks the miracle of G-d’s message. Passover is when G-d judges the crops to determine their bountifulness. Just as the Israelites obtained freedom from slavery, so the seedlings growth out of their own captivity is determined.

##### 8.3.1.1.4 Kitniyot
There is a dietary prohibition against eating hametz that is foods made from wheat, barley, spelt, and oats. Wheat has an exception when it was processed and allowed to rise in less than eighteen minutes of baking. One should not extend this prohibition to kitniyot, i.e. legumes, because it will lead to a violation of the Torah. This is the same error that Eve made in believing there was a prohibition against touching the Tree of Life in addition to eating from it.

Today we see cakes and cookies made from matzah meal invalidating the reason for the prohibition of corn bread etc that could be made from legumes. Moreover the allowance of coffee and cocoa beans has no more sense than their prohibition. Ironically, it is the Conservative Jewish movement (2016) that is leading the Askenazic orthodox Jewry out of the hole they dug with false prohibitions.

One final point is that legumes are so healthy that there would be a prohibition on Passover to not eat them as it would harm ones health. Moshe Feinstein said that if anyone has even a non-life threatening illness they should eat kitniyot quoted in the Spice of Life cookbook. I would further add that the purpose of eating kitniyot on Passover is to learn the healthy habit of eating salads with beans and seeds and to reduce eating bread.

#### 8.3.1.2 Counting of the Omer

The Counting of the Omer begins on the 2nd night of Passover. We stop listening to music during this period of semi-morning. Also haircuts and weddings are prohibited although some leniency exists on the 33rd that is Lag B’omer. TV and movies are permitted because one is not practicing a festive celebration as a spectator here while in listening to music, one might accompany the music. Now some might say if we can watch a movie with music, what is the difference here and listening to the radio? The Reform movement might try to abstain from keeping the laws in this manner. In Orthodox Judaism, we may not observe the commandments perfectly, but we do not deny their Truth. There is a huge philosophic chasm between accepting the Torah from Sinai and denying the legitimacy of commandments. Hence, we know with certainty that we follow the semi-mourning rules during the Omer period and do not listen to music while TV and movies are more of a spectator experience.

The Counting of the Omer gives us a chance to work on the 49 Gates of Repentance in preparation for the receiving of the Torah that is the 50th gate.[897] While at the Red Sea even a maid servant’s experience of prophecy exceeded Isaiah’s and Ezekiel’s this took place during the Exodus from Egypt where Israel was already in a heightened state of ecstasy and purity in a rush to freedom. However, by the time Israel would have reached Mt. Sinai, stability would have caused them to settle back in their ways. True repentance implies true change. Hence, Hashem provided seven weeks for the improvement of character. Each person must find the meaning of each gate in the context to his or her own life. The following is only one man’s way:

The sixth day of the counting of the Omer is Yesod she’be Hesed that is the righteousness in kindness. This is to teach us that kindness must consider the boundaries of righteousness. Ultimately, when we consider what is right and wrong, our kindness becomes righteous and proper.

The seventh day of the counting of the Omer is Malchut she’be Hesed that is the Shabbas queen in kindness. This teaches us to make an extra effort to be kind to the feminine spirit in the world. Hence strive to avoid hurtful or critical words with females. Whether human or animal, bird or plant, to be gentle with the feminine is the lesson of the day. The female is often more fragile physically than the male, be aware of the power in your hands.

The eighth day of the counting of the Omer is Hesed she’be Gevurah that is the kindness that remains in judgment. Hence, there is no judgment without considering kindness for the well being of another.

The ninth day of the counting of the Omer is Gevurah she’be Gevurah that is judgment in judgment. This is a prison of the mind, but even the prison is only an obstacle and G-d is in the obstacle waiting to set you free... Beware the ninth day. Even when there is only harshness and punishment, you can still find Hashem.[898]

The tenth day of the counting of the Omer is Tiferet she’be Gevurah that is truth in judgment that teaches that one must judge truthfully separating the good from the evil.

The eleventh day of the counting of the Omer is Netzah she’be Gevurah that teaches the victory in overcoming judgment. Here we learn that judgment and punishment pass in a little awhile, and what remains is the innocent penitent who will live forever.

The twelve-day of the counting of the Omer is Hod she’be Gevurah, yet another dangerous day when grumbling and discontent threaten to envelop the victory of yesterday. The key is to be thankful for judgment, even punishment, knowing that suffering in this world leads to life in the world to come.

The thirteenth-day of the counting of the Omer is Yesod she’be Gevurah that is to be straight in judgment to apply ones wealth in righteous ways. This includes helping another sustain their employment.

The fourteenth-day of the counting of the Omer is Malchut she’be Gevurah that is an extra consideration of the female before judgment.

The fifteenth-day of the counting of the Omer is Hesed she’be Tiferet that is the activity of kindness in truth, to help those who deserve help.

The sixteenth-day of the counting of the Omer is Gevurah she’be Tiferet that is to face the harsh judgment with truth. People and places are as they are and they cannot be changed. Prejudice and slander remain where they occur—do not to dwell in these places.

The twenty-first-day of the counting of the Omer is Malchut she’be Tiferet that is the feminine aspect of truth. She clings to wisdom that Hochmah and there is great rejoicing in the heavens. Who is her father, he is haKodesh Baruch Hu. When one fears stress and needs patience and calm speech, all he need recite is this name of G-d—haKodesh Baruch Hu.

The thirty-third-day of the counting of the Omer is Hod she’be Hod[899] that is the light of G-d as expressed in the Zohar. This is Lag B’omer.

### 8.3.2 Iyar

The State of Israel is a Taurus! This has endowed the country with a green thumb. The state of Israel is also a place for hard work and productivity. Ironically, spirituality plays a secondary role to the physical sensations that pervade the land in this manifestation of its nationhood. Dance, song, agriculture, engineering, security, and monetary success preoccupy the nation.

Nevertheless, the letter ו – vav is also a letter in the name of G-d and represents the outstretched arm of G-d to all who call upon Him, to all who call upon Him sincerely. Six midos [character qualities] compose the ו, i.e. kindness, judgment, beauty, eternity, thankfulness, and foundation. These are also the principle values of the nation of Israel.

The month of Iyar – אייר is an acrostic for the verse, “I am G-d your Healer.” The warmth of the sun heals the world each year at this time.[900] The Hebrew name, Ziv – זו means light.

### 8.3.3 Sivan

The holiday of Shavuot falls out here. The letter ז – zayin – 7 denotes the Shabbas or day of rest as Shavuot represents an end to the planting season and a resting period after 7 weeks. This is the Yom haBikkurim, the day of the first offerings of the harvest.

Before Shavuos, the King of kings like a groom prepares a house for his future Queen or bride to be. The groom has purchased flowers and gifts and has brought wine and a delicacy for the table. All is arranged for the wedding day. After the day of the wedding, the 49th day, he welcomes the bride to his castle. Then he leaves to change and prepare for their wedding night of marriage. Is it any surprise that the bride is tired and that when he returns he might find her asleep. Does this lessen the love of the groom for the bride or the love of the bride for the groom? The groom is G-d and the bride is Israel. The set table is Mt. Sinai where Israel slept in the morning instead of rising early to receive the Ten Commandments. Nevertheless, can the groom be angry with his bride, seeing that she is so tired?

The greatest aspect of love between husband and wife are the chores they perform for each other. They are like the commandments of G-d. What is the reward for the Counting of the Omer? That is no other than to keep the holiday of Shavuot. The reward for a mitzvah is a mitzvah; there is no heavenly reward. The commandments are the jewelry of the Queen, her diadem of beauty. They matter not in the afterlife, while of sole importance before the living G-d.

On the first day of Shavuot after the Cohen blessing at the Torah, the following poem is read:[901]

Text 8-8: Akdamus
The Traditional Prayer Book for Sabbath and Festivals
Rabbinical Council of America
Behrman House publishing, 1960
trans. David De Sola Pool
pp. 506-512

‘This poem with its ninety verses follows a double alphabetical acrostic with another giving the name of the composer of the hymn, "Meir, son of Rabbi Isaac, may he grow in Torah and in good deeds. Amen. And be strong and of good courage."’ p.504

Before the words of God Supreme
To us are read, for this my theme

Approbation will I seek
These my sentences to speak,

Just two or three,
While tremblingly
On Him I meditate,

The Pure, who doth bear
The world forever;
His power who can relate?

Were the sky of parchment made,
A quill each reed, each twig and blade,

Could we with ink fill sea and brook,
Were every man to write a book,

The marvelous story
Of God's great glory
Would still remain untold.

For He, Most High,
The earth and sky
Created alone of old,

Without fatigue or weary hand,
He spoke the word, He breathed command.

The world and all that therein dwell,
Field and meadow, fen and fell,

Mount and sea,
In six days He
With life did then inspire. (me)

The work when ended,
His glory ascended
Upon His throne of fire,

To do His will they run and dash;

Each day new hosts gleam a forth to praise
The Mighty one, Ancient of days. (of ancient days)

Six-wingèd hosts
Stand at their posts--
The brilliant Seraphim

In hushèd awe
Together draw
To chant their morning hymn.

The angels, together, without delay,
Call to another in rapturous lay:

"Thrice holy He
Whose majesty
Fills earth from end to end."

The Cherubim soar,
Like the ocean's roar,
On celestial spheres they ascend,

To gaze upon the light on high,
Which, like the bow in cloudy sky,

Is iris-colored, silver-lined;
While hasting on their task assigned,

In every tongue
They utter song
And bless and praise the Lord,

Whose secret and source,
Whose light and force,
Can never be fully explored.

The heavenly hosts in awe reply:
"His Kingdom be blessed for ever and aye."

Their song being hushed, they vanished away;
They may never again offer rapturous lay.
(the angels are born for a single day)
But Israel,
His dear gazelle,
In faith and troth well tried,

His glory share,
Him One declare
At morn and eventide.

His portion they, His will obey,
His power declare by night and day;

A precious Law, dearer than gold,
He bade them study, their life to enfold, (in life to old)

That He may be near,
Their prayer to hear,
For always wear will He

His people's prayer
In His phylactery,

Wherein is told of Israel's fame
Who oft God's unity proclaim.

'Tis also meet God's praise to sing
In presence of both prince and king.

With tempestuous glee
Like a storming sea
They surge and ask: "Who, then,

Is the fried of thy heart
For whom thou art
Cast in the lion's den

How fairer wilt thou be to sight,
If thou with us in faith unite;

Thy favor we shall always seek."
But Israel's sons with wisdom speak:

"Oh ye, who are wise

At all compare
With our great share
When God proclaims us free,

And shines on us in glorious light,
While you are wrapped in gloom of night?

His glory then will shine and gleam--
Almighty God, o'er all supreme!"

His enemies,
On isles and seas,
Will suffering endure,

But He'll increase
Abundant peace
To upright men and pure.

Then perfect joy will bring our Lord,
The sacred things will be restored;

The exiles, He will gather them
Into rebuilt Jerusalem;

Day and night
Shall be His light
A canopy of splendor;

A crown of praise
His people shall raise
To crown their Lord and defender.

With brilliant clouds He'll ornament
Each deserving festive tent.

The pure, on stools with gold inlaid,
Before the Lord shall be arrayed;

Their countenance bright,
With sevenfold light,
Will dim the heavenly sheen.

Such beauty rare
None can declare,
No prophet's eye has seen.

Have not been seen by human eyes,

Where the pure rejoice and dance
In the light of His countenance,

And point: " 'Tis He
We patiently
Hoped and waited for

To set us free
From captivity
And guide us as of yore."

* * *

You upright who heard the voice of my song,
May you merit to join this glorious throng;

In heavenly halls you shall meet them in time,
If you hearken His words, melodious, sublime. (melodious and sublime)

Exalted on high
For ever and aye
Our Lord in glory and awe!

We are His choice,
Then let us rejoice
That He blessed us and gave us the Law.

### 8.3.4 Tamuz

July is represented by the letter ח – het, which denotes a fence or limitation. The period, Between the Fences, refers to the three weeks from Yod Zayin Tamuz (17th of Tamuz) until Tish B’Av (9th of Av). At the end of the Second Temple, these three weeks contained an inordinate amount of defeats during the siege of Jerusalem. The fences limited the area of operation necessary to properly defend the Holy Temple.

All her pursuers caught her between fences. (Eichah 1 – Lamentations 1)

I was browsing some old files and ran across this letter on the 17th of Tamuz again in 5768, ten years later.[902] I recall my grandmother who always sent to the charity of Rabbi Me’ir Ba’al HaNess in Tiberias.

The Letter From Heaven
of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov of blessed and holy memory, sent to his precious student Rebbe Yisroel Dov-Ber Odesser, may his merit protect us, in 1922 to the Yeshiva of Rabbi Me'ir Ba'al HaNess in Tiberias, Israel...

“Rabbi Meir Baal Ha Ness is thought to be a descendant of a proselyte. Indeed the Talmud lists many of the Jewish nation's greatest leaders, who had either descended from or were themselves converts. In fact, King David is descended from Ruth, a convert to Judaism. (Ruth 4:13-22)”[903]

### 8.3.5 Av

#### 8.3.5.1 Beginning of Av

The letter ט – tet denotes the serpent or adversary who punishes the Jewish people. On Yom Kippur, a goat was sent away to Azazel. Rabbi Nachman explains the meaning of this. This is like a bone thrown into the mouth of the great goat to quiet him while the Jewish people repent. For 364 days a year, the accuser presents himself before the Almighty, but on Yom Kippur, we are spared his accusations. This also relates to Pidyon that is an amount of money paid to redeem a person. The Pidyon is given to silence the adversary.

The name Azazel – עזאזל has gematria 115 which is also qoof, yod, heh. We spell Azazel Ayin, Zayin, Aleph, Zayin, and Lamed. The Aleph represents G-d that stands in the middle of the name. Azazel is the dismissal of sin. The sin of the Jewish people is dismissed in the wilderness, the place of Azazel. What is in the wilderness? Is it not the 248 positive commandments of the Jewish people? BaMidbar is Bet, Mem, Dalet, Bet, and Resh that is 248. There is a force in the wilderness, and its name is Azazel and it is a servant of Hashem. Its function is to dismiss sin from the Jewish people by a goat, wandering into the wilderness. How can we understand the goat?

There is a teaching that a blessing needs something to rest upon. When we recite the Birkat Hamazon, we do so at a table for a blessing needs an object to rest upon. Similarly, when the Jewish people were in the wilderness and sought removal of their sins, the Cohen would place his hands upon the head of a goat and pronounce our sins, but in so doing the people’s requests would have something to rest upon as well. Why a goat? So that it may wander away into the wilderness. In the wilderness, the sins are devoured and removed by the force of Azazel. The goat is more able to carry sins than a lamb or another animal due to its similar nature. The intention is not that the goat dies but that it wanders into the wilderness and does not return. With the shitafot, the flash floods of winter, the land is washed clean and renewed. The sins that the goat carries will also be washed away.

Meditation 8-1: Rosh Hodesh Av - A Fast Day for the Pious
Rosh Hodesh Av – The new month of Av
Rosh Hodesh Av is Ta’anis Tzaddikim – a fast day for very pious people since Aaron died on this day. During the first 9 days of Av, we refrain from rejoicing and actions that may lead to rejoicing. We avoid planting of trees, home improvement, purchasing of new clothes, sewing, haircuts, and washing clothes. These pleasures are avoided out of memory for the temple that was destroyed on the 9th of Av.

Meditation 8-2: "View the World with the Unbiased View of a Young Student"
Prayer on Rosh Hodesh Av – July 16, 1996 – 8 PM
One may pray for answers on how to deal with any problem. By making a hypnotic suggestion one can prepare for involuntary responses to answer the questions.

I davened at Am Echad alone as services were an hour earlier. I tested my answers with subconscious hypnotic responses, i.e. raising my right arm for truth, left arm for falsehood. At the end of the prayer, I asked for an answer that would help me improve my overall behavior.

I saw in a vision the image of Rav Avraham Lapin Zl, the former rabbi of the synagogue. He was looking at me and there was a young student before him. He was guiding the hand of the student over a sefer and then resting it upon the sefer. The message here was to:

Learn seforim like a young student.
Let the teachings become part of you.
View the world with the unbiased view of a young student.

Today, I also received a Breslov tape that discussed the importance of the tallis. Every thread in the tallis bears the imprint of the one who wears it. Reb Nachman poured out tears with his prayers to Hashem and said that there was a tear for every thread in the tallis when he gave his away to a choice student.

I picked up “Consulting the Wise” and opened it to page 246, which had the following statement:

INTERVIEWER: What sefer would you recommend for someone who wants to improve his midos?

RABBI YECHEZKAIL LEVENSTEIN: “Study the sefer Tomar Dvorah [Palm tree of D’vorah]. Rabbi Simcha Zissel Ziv of Kelm said that studying it is conducive to self-improvement. The sefer describes the thirteen attributes of the Almighty and elaborates on ways to integrate them into one’s own life. Be prepared to spend sufficient time on this project because it is not light reading.”[904]

#### 8.3.5.2 Tisha B’Av – 9th of Av

When the spies returned with an evil report about Israel, G-d said, “Since you have complained on this day for no reason, I will give you a reason.” On this day, our enemies destroyed the First and Second Temples.

Five things are prohibited:
• eating
• drinking
• washing
• wearing leather shoes
• cohabitation

It is also prohibited to greet one’s friend or acquaintance and even to say, “Good morning.” However, one may respond to a greeting in a low tone in order to avoid resentment. Customarily we do not work for any length of time that may distract from the mourning.

After reading Eicha, Lamentations, we recite the following song:

Text 8-9: Song at the End of Lamentations

Eli tzion vodecha, cmo isha v’tzirecha – אלי ציון ועריה כמו אשה בציריה
My God Zion trusts in You, like a woman in the pangs of birth.[905]

V’chivtolah hagurat-sak al-baal n’urehah – וכבתולה חגרת שק על בעל נעוריה
And like a virgin girded in sad clothes lamenting the husband of her youth.[906]

This first verse is not biblical and while the analogy suggests the rebirth of Israel will be worth the suffering, childbirth should not be stigmatized as suffering.[907]

Meditation 8-3: Fasting Meditation
Tish B’Av – July 27, 1993 – 5 PM
The following meditation illustrates the positive effect fasting has on meditation. While fasting facilitates meditation by weakening the physical binds on the soul, lengthy fasts can also be dangerous and it is easier to lose consciousness as illustrated at the mediation’s end.

I decided to do a meditation to keep my mind off of food. Quickly I rose to the level of Malchuts. I felt the whole floor elevated as I entered this level on my own! I then lifted myself to Yesod. All around were towering angels. With only the slightest though Gavriel, Michael, Uriel, and Raphael descended to the four corners of my body. They lifted me as I looked upwards towards Tiferet like a spread sheet. A fifth angel joined by the name of Nuriel and Uriel took a center position under my body. We ascended above Tiferets and I felt as if I was floating in clouds and a blue sky.

As we rose higher, I thought about what I wanted to do. I wanted to know of the Messiah some more. I then saw one like the Son of Man coming down and there was a crown upon his head lowered quickly from above. I prostrated myself before him and he turned his head upward towards G-d saying,

“Why do you prostrate before me, there is only G-d.”[908]

He lifted me up and we were the same height for he was a man not an angel. He told me to find the answers, I should look into his eyes. The eyes were a swirling blue and green like water currents and I began to feel faint. I felt like I might lose consciousness if I gazed to long upon them. I opened my eyes and said I must eat. The experience was too dangerous.

Meditation 8-4: Dove
Dove – 7/23/98
Tonight is Rosh Hodesh Av. Today was Erev Rosh Hodesh. In the morning, I cleaned my hand tefillin. I had a blowout on the way to work and replaced two tires and rear brakes. That evening after I came out of shul, I saw a white dove resting on my rear window windshield wiper. It was very much at peace. I saw how it would find peace by looking away from me. Only when a change was imminent would it look towards me, otherwise it would rest.

To be at rest, we must turn away from the turmoil around us and find inner tranquility. As I began to drive off the dove stayed on my car.

The Tur says the Temple was destroyed because the Jews failed to say a blessing before studying Torah. This would be the two blessings, one said before and one said after an Aliyah to the Torah. They did not internalize the concept of blessing into their Torah learning experience. Others claims the temple was destroyed because of the treatment of Jews of each other. A third opinion suggests that the temple was destroyed because of the treatment of Jews towards alienated peoples including those of Jewish fathers and non-Jewish mothers and Christian Jews, i.e. the treatment of Jews of each other, sinas chinam—senseless hatred. The State of Israel today has rectified this position by accepting both of these groups as citizens.

For only three sins is one required to choose death, kiddush Hashem, self-sacrifice - yehareg ve'al ya'avor. They are idolatry, sexual immorality (incest or adultery), and murder. The last two are obvious in their harm of others. The first is not. Why would G-d not understand the duress of the tortured in a false confession or service? During the 2002 beheadings in Iraq, Daniel Pearl z”l bared false loyalty to Islam. Who could hold him accountable, while his life hanged by a thread? Idolatry vs. life is based on the incorrect interpretation of Deuteronomy 6:5, which states, “And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might - meodecha.” Do heart, soul, and might require self-sacrifice for idolatry under torture? What if the idolatry is only by route—does prayer count when said by route? Commentators than had to explain that the prohibition on idolatry applies in the case of a public desecration; but who would believe the actions of someone being forced under duress?

Not to deny kiddush Hashem, self-sacrifice; but what if the Ten tanaim Martyrs who died by the flames of Rome had lived?[909] Would the Romans have killed them anyway?

How I wish – הלוואי – halavai
For now or at this time – בעת עתה
Thought disconnected from reality – מציאותי

That we need to understand that an army is needed at this time to defend from enemies and that it is disconnected from reality to simply believe that we can avoid our enemies by Torah education alone.[910] In fact it is Torah practice that tells us to establish an army.

#### 8.3.5.3 Tu B’av

The 15th of Av – ט"ו באב

One of the most joyous celebrations in the Jewish calendar is lost to our people and surely needs restoration. For without the renewal of this holiday, there is no restoration for the plight of Jewish singles. For here was a holiday geared towards their needs that would bring available women and men together to meet for marriage.[911]

Text 8-10: Tu B’Av – Fifteenth of Av

“R. SIMEON B. GAMALIEL SAID: THERE NEVER WERE IN ISRAEL BETTER DAYS THAN THE FIFTEENTH OF AV AND THE DAY OF ATONEMENT. ON THESE DAYS THE DAUGHTERS OF JERUSALEM USED TO WALK OUT IN WHITE GARMENTS, WHICH THEY BORROWED IN ORDER NOT TO PUT TO SHAME ANY ONE WHO HAD NONE. ALL THESE GARMENTS REQUIRED RITUAL DIPPING (in a natural body of water or mikvah). THE DAUGHTERS OF JERUSALEM CAME OUT AND DANCED IN THE VINEYARDS EXCLAIMING AT THE SAME TIME, YOUNG MAN, LIFT UP THINE EYES AND SEE WHAT THOU CHOOSEST FOR THYSELF. DO NOT SET THINE EYES ON BEAUTY BUT SET THINE EYES ON [GOOD] FAMILY. GRACE IS DECEITFUL, AND BEAUTY IS VAIN; BUT A WOMAN THAT FEARETH THE LORD, SHE SHALL BE PRAISED. AND IT FURTHER SAYS, GIVE HER OF THE FRUIT OF HER HANDS; AND LET HER WORKS PRAISE HER IN THE GATES.”[912]
...

“From this day onwards, he who increases [his knowledge through study] will have his life prolonged, but he who does not increase [his knowledge] will have his life taken away.”[913]...

“THOSE OF THEM WHO CAME OF NOBLE FAMILIES EXCLAIMED, ‘YOUNG MAN etc.’” Our Rabbis have taught: The beautiful amongst them called out, Set your eyes on beauty for the quality most to be prized in woman is beauty; those of them who came of noble families called out, Look for [a good] family for woman has been created to bring up a family; the ugly ones amongst them called out, Carry off your purchase in the name of Heaven, only on one condition that you adorn us with jewels of gold.

“Ulla Bira'ah said in the name of R. Eleazar: In the days to come the Holy One, blessed be He, will hold a chorus for the righteous and He will sit in their midst in the Garden of Eden and every one of them will point with his finger towards Him, as it is said, And it shall be said in that day: Lo, this is our God, for whom we waited, that He might save us; this is the Lord for whom we waited, we will be glad and rejoice in His salvation.’(Isaiah 25:9)”[914]

R. Zvi Elimelech presents a more mystical interpretation of the origin of this holiday:

Text 8-11: Bnei Yesahar by R. Zvi Elimelech on Tu B’Av
According to Bnei Yesakhar, a Hassidic teaching by R. Zvi Elimelekh Shapira of Dinov, p. 112d, translated by Ivan Ickovits:

We learn from tradition that the daughters of Israel would go out in a circle on Yom Kippur [and on Tu B’Av, the fifteenth of Av] and the men who did not have mates would go out and look for a mate. . . . [[In fact, the Ta'anit passage where this is all reported says the women chose their husbands on that day, not vice versa. – Arthur Waskow][915]

[Why on Yom Kippur? Because] on Yom Kippur God seeks out Israel in joy and gives her the Second Tablets, binding Himself to her forever. Hence, Yom Kippur is a day designated for marital union. . . .

[Why on Tu B'Av?]

The Talmud states: Forty days before the formation of the embryo the heavens declare that this soul will be wed to this soul. Forty days before the 25th of Elul (the day of creation according to Rebbe Eliezer) is Tu B'Av (the15th of Av). [That is, since the 1st of Tishri is the day of the creation of Humanity / Adam, by counting backward we find that 25th of Elul is the day of creation of the universe.]

Thus, it was on the Tu B'Av before creation that Israel became a thought in the divine Mind and Israel was first destined to receive the Torah (the Second Tablets) on Yom Kippur. This is the reason that the tribes were permitted to intermarry on that day and the day was designated for marital union.

An unknown commentary explains:

Now -- WHY did the spark or thought of the Creation begin 40 days prior on that day?

BECAUSE THAT IS "WHEN" YH – יה (the real way of spelling 15) ENTERS (the month of) AV -- "ALEPH-BET."

THAT IS, THE ENTIRE CREATIVE PROCESS BEGINS, THE GREAT TZIMTZUM HAPPENS, WHEN YAH ENTERS THE ALEPH-BET.

THAT'S WHY CREATION BEGINS WITH A "BET", B'RESHIT: BECAUSE YAH GOES FAR ENOUGH INTO THE ALEPH-BET TO GET TO "BET," (WHICH UNLIKE Aleph HAS A SOUND, AND ALSO HAS TWO LETTERS IN A SERIES THAT IS NECESSARY TO MAKE IT A SERIES; BOTH ARE CRUCIAL ASPECTS OF THE EMERGENCE OF A UNIVERSE) --

AND THAT'S WHEN THE SPARK IS STRUCK.

This is also the case with Tu B'Shvat. Tu B’Shvat is forty days before the twenty-fifth of Nissan, which is the day of creation according to Rebbe Yehoshuah. We already know that the human being is likened to a tree.

Therefore, even though we don't hold that Nissan is the month of creation, we designate Tu B’Shvat as the New Year for the Trees in that the first blossom is the embryonic stage of what will blossom into fruit and flower and fill the world with beauty in Nissan.

Tu B’Av is the New Year of Singles suggesting that the fate of singles is judged on this day for the year to come: who will get married, who will find someone, and who will remain alone with the sealing of the decree on Yom Kipper.

### 8.3.6 Elul

Elul is the month of remedy before the high holidays. The letter Yod – י is the source letter of Elul from Sefer Yetzirah, the Book of Creation. The Yod indicates that the righteous return completely to G-d. Righteous ones can make a complete repentance in the month of Elul, some from the very first day of the month – Rosh Hodesh. The Yod is the first letter in the name of G-d and represents beginnings like Rosh Hashanah. It symbolizes wisdom and the source of the 32 paths. Out of the yod comes the heh, (10 х 5), which represents the 50 gates of understanding according to the sefirah of Binah – understanding. These 50 gates are the permutations taken two at a time of the seven ‘children’ – midot – ‘character qualities’ of Binah plus one for the revelation of G-d.[916] The Zohar Hakodesh alludes to the fiftieth gate being a hidden door to Hochmah:[917]

One gate has no side. No one knows whether it is above or below; it is shut.

Elul – אלול is an acrostic for Ani Ldodi Vdodi Li – אני לדודי ודודי לי, I am for my beloved and my beloved is mine. In Elul, G-d and Israel are as lovers that meet informally. We go out into the field to wait for our beloved as he returns from his hard day of work. We adorn ourselves with pretty clothes and basic jewelry so that our beloved sees our simple beauty. He is our King, our Husband, our L-rd, and our Master. The gematria for Elul is 67. The simple number from this gematria is 6+7, which is 13, that is also the gematria of love – אהבה and oneness – אחד.

Meditation 8-5: Love Again
How do we take so much dross and turn it back to silver?????
How can we recharge our spiritual batteries if we can't visit a tzaddik????

How can we keep the commandments better if we are so aloof???
How can we love G-d, if we do not love??
Maybe I should just ask, how can we learn to love again?

Text 8-12: “For the Beauty of the Earth”
1. For the beauty of the earth, for the beauty of the skies,
2. For the beauty of each hour, of the day and of the night,
3. For the joy of human love, brother, sister, parent, child,

1. For the love which from our birth, over and around us lies,
2. Hill and vale, and tree of flower, sun and moon, and stars of light,
3. Friends on earth, and friends above, for all gentle thoughts and mild,

Lord of all, to thee we raise, this our hymn of grateful praise.[918]

Text 8-13: The King is in the Field
“The King is in the field, let us go out and greet him.”
“In Utah, the King is in the mountains.”
“I will go look for Him”
What preparations should one make before Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur?

Everything one can accomplish during Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur can be accomplished during the month of Elul. Preparations include:

• Increase charity.
• Hear the shofar blown in the morning.
• Increase acts of loving-kindness.

A person can achieve complete repentance in the month of Elul. In astrology, Elul associates with the purity and renewal of virginity. This is the same as the renewal and cleansing of the soul.

### 8.3.7 Tishrei

#### 8.3.7.1 Rosh Hashanah

“The observance of the 1st of Tishri as Rosh Hashanah is based principally on the mention of "Zikkaron" (= "memorial day"; Lev. xxiii. 24) and the reference of Ezra to the day as one "holy to the Lord" (Neh. viii. 9) seem to point. The passage in Psalms (lxxxi. 5) referring to the solemn feast which is held on New Moon Day, when the shofar is sounded, as a day of "mishpat" (judgment) of "the God of Jacob" is taken to indicate the character of Rosh Hashanah”

We are to hear the call of God like a trumpet calling us back to Him.
Text 8-14: Leviticus 23:23-44
23. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,
24. Speak to the children of Israel, saying, in the seventh month, in the first day of the month you will have a sabbath of remembrance with trumpets – שבתון זכרון תרועה of a holy calling – מקרא-קדש.
25. You shall do no labor in it; but you shall offer an offering made by fire to the Lord.
26. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,
27. Upon – אך the tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement; it shall be a holy gathering to you; and you shall impoverish - ועניתם your bodies - נפשתיכם and sacrifice והקרבתם אשה (make fire offerings) instead to the Lord.
28. And you shall not make with things (build) this day; for it is the Day of Atonement to atone upon you before the Lord your God.
29. For whatever soul that does not humble in body - בעצם this day will be spiritually cut off from among his people.
30. And whatever soul works in body this day I will remove the body from the midst of her people.
31. You shall do no kind of work; it is a statute forever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.
32. Sabbath of Sabbaths it is for you an impoverishment of your bodies in the ninth day of the month in the evening, from evening to evening, shall you keep your Sabbath.
33. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,
34. Speak to the people of Israel, saying, the fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the Feast of Sukkot (s’hak – branches on the roof of booths) for seven days to the Lord.
35. On the first day shall be a holy gathering; you shall do no labor in it.
36. Seven days you shall offer an offering made by fire to the Lord; on the eighth day shall be a holy gathering to you; and you shall offer an offering made by fire to the Lord; it is a solemn assembly; and you shall do no labor in it.
37. These are the feasts of the Lord, which you shall proclaim to be holy gatherings, to offer an offering made by fire to the Lord, a burnt offering, and a meal offering, a sacrifice, and drink offerings, every thing upon his day;
38. Beside the sabbaths of the Lord, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill offerings, which you give to the Lord.
39. Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered in the fruit of the land, you shall keep a feast to the Lord seven days; on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath.
40. And you shall take on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and you shall rejoice before the Lord your God seven days.
41. And you shall keep it a feast to the Lord seven days in the year. It shall be a statute forever in your generations; you shall celebrate it in the seventh month.
42. You shall dwell in booths seven days; all who are Israelites born shall dwell in booths;
43. That your generations may know that I made the people of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt; I am the Lord your God.
44. And Moses declared to the people of Israel the feasts of the Lord.

#### 8.3.7.2 Yom Kippur

The letter Lamed – ל denotes the new cycle of learning that begins with Simchas Torah at the end of the holiday [when we begin reading the Torah scroll from the beginning]. Lomed – למד is also the word for learning in Hebrew. Tishrei is a month to renew Jewish learning which helps us with Tshuvah, i.e. returning to G-d. In addition, the constellation of the month is Libra whose scales symbolize the ten-day judgment period from Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kippur. In Hebrew, the word for scales is moznaim.[919]

Meditation 8-6: RaM BakDai
During the morning Yom Kippur service, the evil inclination – Yetzer harah can test a person by inclining them to leave the services.[920] Overcoming brings one into the afternoon - Musaf service. The congregation appears as a wedge of people advancing into the palaces of heaven. Only the 1st and 2nd palaces can be entered by the entirety. The first palace is a reflection of our own world. The second houses the activities of many angels. The 1st and 2nd palaces are chained together and easy to pass between. Michael and Gabriel hold the gates of each palace open to permit entry. In the throne room of the 2nd palace is the next ladder of ascent. The ladder is occupied on Yom Kippur with the souls of the righteous reaching into the heavens. Yet, there is a channel beside the ladder that angels ascend, the channel of the eye of the cylindrical waterfall. Within the 3rd palace that parallels the sefira of Hesed sits a righteous one upon a throne. His hands are beautiful reflecting deeds of kindness and compassion. He blesses each person who merits ascending the ladder with mercy. Overcoming fear to gaze into his face shows the reflection of righteous people in the current temple service. The entrance into the 4th palace of heaven lies within the face that is a tunnel alternating with black and white corridor sections. At the end of the tunnel are ornately carved closed doors. These are the gates of the 4th palace, which is the place of the sefira of Hochmah. Utter within the mind the name of G-d associated with this sefira and the doors will open. Fear exists here that overwhelms preventing one from entry. One may only enter if the Partzuf Nukvah is present with her Father. Take her hand to enter the Empty Palace. She is the Shechinah the female presence of G-d and she dances before her Father. The Princess dwells in the palace of her Father, who is Hochmah. Wisdom is sometimes referred to as a woman in Proverbs, but in truth, it is Wisdom’s daughter while Wisdom is masculine. During the time of judgment she ascends to be with her father and dances with the spirit of ascendant prayers in circles of delight. Below is the singularity of the whole world. There is nothing in Wisdom for all is yet undifferentiated. Looking upward see the singularity reflected downward from the gates of Keter, which are black and almost impossible to discern. From here angels cannot help one ascend. Utter the name of G-d associated with Keter and the black gates will open and rise into the darkness into the radiating black light. Recall that children, food, and clothing are left to mazel and descend from this level. Willing higher takes one to the next level that is Mah in the World of Letters. Behold the White Light and Silver Chains and know that Mah parallels Malchut below. Will oneself into Ben who parallels Yesod. Sag parallels Binah, and Av parallels Hochmah. Above rests G-d’s perfect conception of man - Adam Kadmon. Here learn the name RaM – רם, which means ‘high above’ and discern the following expansion. 10*4 + 100*2 => BakDai – בקדי. BakDai means ‘enough seeking’ and sweep down in the Shefa River flowing through all the sefirot and pouring out of Malchuts like a waterfall.

There is a special relationship between the attributes of Hochmah and Malchut not unlike a father and a daughter. Hochmah is the upper wisdom and Malchut the lower wisdom. The daughter seeks to be the apple of her father’s eyes and she is clever. Cleverness is the lower wisdom.

#### 8.3.7.3 Sukkot

On Sukkot we invite a different couple to join us each day in the Sukkah. This presents an opportunity to meditate on a question in your life and how the Ushpazim would answer that question. When a patriarch had multiple wives, he may be seen with each one as a couple in successions for asking questions, but not all together.

Meditation 8-7: Ushpazim
Day 1: Abraham and Sarah (A&S): Explained that Abraham’s tent was open on all four sides so that all could enter as visitors. Abraham had to learn from Sarah that one must cast off an evil woman as Hagar had become before her mistress Sarah. A&S exhibited Hesed, quickness in pursuit, in all their endeavors. Hesed although traditionally associated with kindness has more to do with haste to pursue what is right. A&S made haste to feed the three visiting angels. Abraham also sent Hagar with Ishmael away in haste once he realized Sarah was revealing the will of G-d. Abraham did not wish to send Ishmael away, but subjected his will to G-d’s will. This was a test like the Akeidah. Eliezer his servant had a daughter who he had hoped would marry Isaac, but he subjected his will to his master to find a wife for Isaac. Sarah’s name is from Sar that is princess. Abraham traveled from across the Eber River to reach the land of Israel. From here we learn that great posterity required Abraham to raise his family in Israel. Boredom and loneliness result from lack of movement in the intellect and emotions respectively.[921]

Day 2: Isaac and Rebekah: Isaac knew how to avoid stressful conversation particularly with his wife. He also overlooked the disgressions of his children and knew how to unconditionally love his whole family. Isaac until late in life did not understand the avoidance of argument led to concealment and Rebekah’s promoting of Jacob over Esau. Still, this enabled his long life. From Isaac we can learn that laughter overcomes stress and creates a congenial life on the home front. From Rebekah, we learn the power of a woman to guide the future of the Jewish nation. Isaac left this responsibility to his wife who rose to the occasion. In the later blindness in life, he depended upon the wisdom of his wife. “A good wife who can find, she is more precious than jewels.”

Day 3: Jacob and his wives: Jacob’s wives differed from Hagar who was a true concubine only sleeping with Abraham for the fertility of Ishmael. The wives of Jacob had many children and transcended that role.

Day 4: Moshe and Zipporah: The great lawgiver and prophet was plagued with criticism over his wife. Discrimination against Zipporah led to the outing of Miriam the prophetess. From here we learn that the “Who is a Jew” question was settled thousands of years ago on the side of leniency.

Day 5: Aaron and Elisheva: The great peacemaker would tell fond words to everyone about what everyone else said about them to settle disputes and increase Ahavas Israel – love within Israel.

Day 6: Joseph and Einat: From them we can learn patience and not to become angry over any matter. Saw the unhappiness of Joseph in my loss of temper and anger. No one had more reason to be provoked to anger than Joseph and no one controlled his temper more than Joseph. Contained within our name are our challenges in life. Einat was an Egyptian princess and brought fine qualities to the life of Joseph. She maintained her own dignity and life values and raised her children according to her husband’s religion. Joseph loved Einat deeply learning from her as well.

Day 7: David and his wives: Saw my father recently departed greeted by King David. Quickly the king pushed him up into the higher light. From here I learned how quick are the decisions of a king. He has not time to waste.

Elisheva was the brother of Nahshon, leader of Judah, who was first to step into the Red Sea, the histradlus[922] for the miracle of the dividing of the waters. They were the children of Amminadav meaning, “my people are generous.” Elisheva was of royal character and Baba Batra 110a, “and this is especially mentioned as a hint that one should take care to select a wife whose brothers are noble.” Elizabeth is the English name for Elisheva.

#### 8.3.7.4 Shemini Etzeret and Simchas Torah

Text 8-15: Genesis 1:1 and Psalm 111:10
In the beginning G-d created the heaven and the earth

The beginning of wisdom is the fear of G-d

The word for ‘In the beginning’ is Bresheet – ברשית. Zohar 1:18a explains how both beginnings are the same:

Text 8-16: Zohar 1:8a
...the first gate to supernal Wisdom is the fear of God. This is Reshit – beginning – רשית and ‘in the’ – ב, the two are joined together as one. These are two points: one hidden and concealed, one existing overtly. Since they are inseparable, they are called Reshit – beginning One not Two. Whoever attains one attains the other. All is one, for He and His name are one, as it is written: They will know that You, G-d, alone are Your name. (Psalms 83:19).

The hidden point is Hochmah and the visible point is Malchut. The first gate is Malchut, the lower fear. Hochmah is the higher fear, experienced as awe. “Upon entering Shekhinah, lower Wisdom, one encounters higher Wisdom, reflected in Her.”[923]

After the destruction of the first Temple, the Babylonian king, Nebuchadnetzar allowed a remnant of the Jews to remain and appointed Gedaliah Ben Achikam to be their governor.[924] Jews who had fled to neighboring lands began to return to tend the vineyards of Judah. The King of Ammon sent Yishmael Ben Netaniah to assassinate Gedaliah. Gedaliah disbelieved the rumors he had heard, and went out to greet Yishmael in the town of Mitzpa, and Yishmael assassinated him.[925]

We read in the daily Alenu prayer:

Text 8-17: Alenu
And G-d will be King over all the earth,
(and) on that day G-d will be one and his name one.
(Zechariah 14:9)

And on Rosh Hashanah we read:

Text 8-18: Gates of Light on Being Merry
Then the righteous will see and be joyful,
and the forthright will be merry...’[926]

The Gates of Light quotes further:

The light of the moon will be like the light of the sun and the light of the sun will be intensified sevenfold like the light of seven days on the day when the Lord heals his people...
(Isaiah 30:26)

The waters of desire flow from Keter that is the place of ratzon or the will of G-d as He relates to our world. However, all judgments are determined in Gevurah except for three, which flow from Keter:[927]

Pink associates with the sefirot of Netzah and Hod, specifically the pathway to prophecy and revelation. Not surprisingly wearing a pink shirt cues the mind in this regard:

Meditation 8-8: Rosh Hashanah 5769 2nd Day Musaf – additional service
A crowd of sages gathers with their wives. They are applauding the services of man. Suddenly there is the roar of the shofar and the applause vanishes. The Spirit of Elohim ascends the Mountain of the Lord in the wispy smoke of Tekiah.

“What do you see at the top of the Mountain?”
--There is a yellow light.

“And what do you see in the yellow?”
--There is the color of blue and that is the sky.

“And what do you see in the blue?”
--There is the color of white and they are the clouds.

“What do you see in the white?”
--There are chains of letters?

“And what do you see in the letters?”
--I see the Name of G-d, Havayah and I see Ahavah that is ‘G-d loves’.

Together, they are 26+13 that is 39 or 12 for the 12 months and the 12 tribes of Jeshurun.[928]

Hashem asks and the prophet answers, but it is the Neshamah that has ascended to the Plane of Prophecy that is answering. Where is the Plane of Prophecy? Hochmah to Binah is the elemental plane of Fire, Hesed to Gevurah is the elemental plane of Air, and Netzah to Hod is the elemental plane of Water that collocates with the Plane of Prophecy.[929] The Plane of Prophecy is in the blue sky - haShamayim that is the water above the waters - Mayim.

Text 8-19: Mazel
Children, life and food do not rely on merit but on mazel.
(Moed Katan 28a)

The death of Gedaliah is hard to understand. Yet, life depends on mazel that is the constellations and fortune. Still the sages commemorated Gedaliah’s death with a fast day to remember always the good of his life.

On Yom Kippur, we read of the plight of the Ten Martyrs slain by a wicked Roman viceroy. Here the Roman asks Rabbi Ishmael the punishment for kidnapping. His reply is ‘death’. Then the Roman says is it not true that the brothers kidnapped Joseph and never paid for their crime. Rabbi Ishmael concedes. Then the Roman says since they are no longer alive and you are their descendents, then you will pay for their crime.

Rabbi Ishmael asks for three days to find if this is decreed from heaven. Rabbi Ishmael ascends to heaven to hear whether the decree that they succumb to death to pay for the punishment of kidnapping and selling Joseph into slavery is from on high. Rabbi Ishmael hears from a white angel that this decree is what “I heard behind the curtain”. After descending, Rabbi Ishmael informs the others and the ruler whereupon guards set upon and take him and Rabbi Shimon immediately. Rabbi Shimon asks to die first so that he does not have to witness the death of Rabbi Ishmael whereupon an executioner removes his head from his body. Rabbi Ishmael laments about how the tongue that spoke so eloquently words of Torah now licks the dust of the ground. The emperor’s daughter upon seeing the face of Rabbi Ishmael wants him for herself, but the emperor denies her, whereupon she says let his face be flayed off. When the flaying reaches the location of the tefillin, Rabbi Ishmael cries out and his life ends.

Meditation 8-9: White Angel
During Yom Kippur 5765 I am praying to understand the death of the Ten Martyrs. During the Neilah service, I sense that the gates of prayer are still closed on high and I wonder what good deed can we find that will open them. I perform some visualizations of the Name of God in silver for Hesed and blue for Malchut. There is some movement, but the gates remain shut. After ascending I see the gates that are still closed. I call upon Almighty – El Shaddai to open the gates and the first set opens. Another set lies within and I walk forward. There is some Shefa flowing down. Now I attach by my name with the spirit of Joseph who associates with the sefira of Yesod and I visual the Name of God in orange, and I call upon El Shaddai and the gate opens. This repeats and more Shefa flows until I reach the final gate. There I see a white angel who admonishes me not to insist to open this gate. He says the Shefa behind is for the time of the Messiah from Judah. In addition, I sense that much of the Divine presence is behind this gate.[930] I pause for a moment and I say that I will not open the gate. Instead, I will present the collective prayers of the whole congregation. Slowly the gate opens and a river pours forth that is the Shefa. Its color is as the mother of pearl with the scintillating colors of all the sefirot. The Shefa flows into the world and I sing a song.

Here the White angel is guarding the final gate holding back the Shefa to be released into the world for the New Year. Later I realize the white angel is the same as the one Rabbi Ishmael consulted on high and accepted the decree of punishment meant for the brothers of Joseph. My Hebrew name is Joseph and I have long ago forgiven any harm that came upon me from my brethren. I look forward to preparing the world for the descendent of Judah for the messiah leader.

Sometimes Hashem’s decree is firm though the victim has already forgiven the perpetrators. For this reason Elohim did not grant a reprieve to Rabbi Ishmael, Rabbi Shimon, and the others. The death of the martyrs also connects to the sin of slander and senseless hatred between Jews, has vshalom.

On Sukkot we wave the Four Species in the six directions corresponding to the six sefirot of Zer Anpin. A good prayer while doing this is:

Grant me a kind heart that I might help others.
Give me strength
Reveal for me the truth
Give me victory

Text 8-20: Sukkoth Discussion
What do we know about Kiddush Hashem, those who die in martyrdom.[931] Haran was the first to die for Kiddush Hashem as he entered the fires with Abraham his brother, but died before his father upon exiting. What was his payment? He merited to be the ancestor of the Four Mothers of Israel. Miriam’s son Hur died while protesting the sin of the Egel in the camp of Israel. What was his payment? He merited to be the father of Bezalel who at the mere age of thirteen, Moses appointed to head the artisan project for the design of the tabernacle. Why did Aaron merit to be high priest of Israel? He foresaw that Zechariah the prophet and Cohen of his generation would be put to death in the Holy of Holies. Another would come to town and slay the sages and leaders of the House of Israel because of the boiling blood. He would ask, “Must I slay all of Israel to appease you?” Whereupon the blood stopped boiling and the slaughter ended. Aaron saw this and realized that if Israel would slay him who was both prophet and priest, they would forfeit their existence, has vshalom, and so he took upon himself the sin of constructing the Egel to save Israel. Afterwards, Moses told him because you did this your payment is to be High Priest of Israel.

One may perform Tashlich up until Hoshana Rabbah. One chooses a living body of water, preferably with fish. Fish never close their eyes, which alludes to their sinless nature. Fish symbolize salvation from G-d. Even before G-d prepared punishment for Jonah, he prepared his savior. G-d prepared a big fish that would swallow Jonah and prevent him from drowning. When Jonah agreed to be the messenger for G-d to the city of Nineveh, the fish spit Jonah out onto the dry land. Thereupon, Jonah proclaimed, “I have returned to being the messenger of G-d; may G-d cast all my sins into the depth of the sea.” The sea is very large, large enough to dissolve all sins.[932]

On the seventh day of Sukkoth, the day of Hoshana Rabbah arrives, where we walk around the Torah seven times with final pleas for G-d to save us in the coming year. The Zohar is a source for the teaching that the final judgment of Rosh Hashanah is sealed on Hoshana Rabbah, the seventh day of Sukkot:[933]

Text 8-21: Zohar on Hoshana Rabbah and Shemini Etzeret
On the seventh day of Tabernacles the judgment of the world is finally sealed and the edicts are sent forth from the King, and God’s might is aroused, and the “willows of the brook” (netzah and hod) depend on it, and we require to awaken the might which sends the rain and to go around the altar seven times and sate it with the water of Isaac, because the well of Isaac is filled with water, and then all the world is blessed with water. We therefore pray that the rain-giving power may be manifested, and afterwards destroy willow twigs, since judgment is closed on this day. R. Hiya said: ‘In reference to this day, it is written: “And Isaac returned and dug the wells of water” (Gen. 26:18). Isaac (symbolizing gevurah), having sat on the Throne of Judgment on the first day of the seventh month, now pours might upon the Community of Israel to set the waters in motion. Hence all depends on the appropriate action (of taking the four species).

On this day the idolatrous nations come to the end of their blessings and enter into judgment, and Israel come to the end of their punishments and enter into blessings. For on the next day (Eight Day of Assembly) they are to rejoice in the King and to receive from Him blessing for all the year.

Hoshana Rabbah is the last day that repentance may change ones course in the year to come. This means that at the end of Yom Kippur, G-d holds back the decree and can reseal one’s fate until Hoshana Rabbah. Thus, one may perform Tashlich up until Hoshana Rabbah though it is a commandment to do so the afternoon of Rosh Hashanah. Nevertheless, Hazal teach that Gates of Prayer are never closed to the truly repentant. How are we to understand this? From here we learn on Rosh Hashanah ones course is decreed, on Yom Kippur it is sealed but can still be changed through Hoshana Rabbah; nevertheless, prayer and repentance mitigate the harm that may occur during the course of the rest of the year.

In fact, a course that was to bring loss can be turned into a course that will bring reward. Still, if ones course in life is decreed to bring one into exile that will not change, but the reward in exile can be increased by prayer and repentance during any time of the year. Hoshana Rabbah is a gift of the mercy of G-d that even when we thought we were sealed one way on Yom Kippur, we may yet change our course. For example, although G-d decreed that we would go into exile, G-d changes that decree so that we may stay in Eretz Israel. Or although we were decreed to have a car accident, G-d changes the course so that we will not have an accident. After Hoshana Rabbah, only the harm of an accident can be mitigated that is still a great gift.

Overall, the repentance and forgiveness that one can obtain on Hoshana Rabbah is complete and so beautiful that we regret this day ever ending. In addition, Hoshana Rabbah is the last day one can sit in the Succah fulfilling the mitzvah and this too is a sad departure. And to sit in the Succah is to have ones soul visited by the Shechinah and to experience tshuvah returning to the House of G-d. Because of the loss of this sublime beauty, Hashem gave us the day of Shemini Etzeret that we may yet dance with Her presence in this world once more. Hence, we dance with the Torah, the jewelry of our Beloved.

Those who bear tokens of the beauty of creation, the seven species, walk around the Torah that is His gift to us seven times.[934] As a wife circles her husband, we circle the Torah of G-d’s presence. The Torah is our marriage contract, that which we celebrate on the following day(s) of Shemini Etzeret and Simchat Torah. Interestingly the 8th and 9th days are a separate holiday from Sukkoth and yet a closing holiday. We keep them purely for the sake of our love for G-d. While the offerings of the 70 nations of the world are brought during Sukkoth, Shemini Etzeret is for Israel alone a day of love with G-d.

After Sukkoth plant the Etrog’s seeds and the fruit can be boiled into a sour bitter tea that is a tonic for the digestive and circulatory systems:[935]

Text 8-22: Medicinal use of the Etrog
In ancient times and in the Middle Ages, the 'Etrog' was employed as a remedy for seasickness, pulmonary troubles, intestinal ailments and other disorders. Citron juice with wine was considered an effective purgative to rid the system of poison. In India, the peel is a remedy for dysentery and is eaten to overcome halitosis. The distilled juice is given as a sedative. The candied peel is sold in China as a stomachic, stimulant, expectorant and tonic. In West Tropical Africa, the citron is used only as a medicine, particularly against rheumatism. The flowers are used medicinally by the Chinese. In Malaya, a decoction of the fruit is taken to drive off evil spirits. A decoction of the shoots of wild plants is administered to improve appetite, relieve stomachache and expel intestinal worms. The leaf juice, combined with that of Polygonum and Indigofera is taken after childbirth. A leaf infusion is given as an antispasmodic. In Southeast Asia, citron seeds are given as a vennifuge. In Panama, they are ground up and combined with other ingredients and given as an antidote for poison. The essential oil of the peel is regarded as an antibiotic.

### 8.3.8 Heshvan

There are no holidays in this month which is represented by the letter נ – nun. The letter nun does not occur in King David’s great psalm Ashrei, thus denoting a level the Jews never descended to before leaving Egypt.[936] There is a teaching that there are 49 levels down followed by a 50th level from which there is no return. There are also 49 levels up and the 50th denotes the holiday of Shavuot or the Giving of the Torah and the revelation at Mt. Sinai.

The Nun verse is missing from the Ashei psalm. Hazal teach that David avoided the verse to avoid the word ‘nofel’ meaning fall. Nun also means fish in Hebrew. In Egyptian, ‘nun’ is the primordial ocean from which the first land-island appeared.

### 8.3.9 Kislev

The letter ס – samech denotes happiness or sameach. This month has the holiday of Hanukah. Hanukah contains the prefix ‘hen,’ which means grace. For at this time G-d showed his grace upon Israel and permitted the menorah in the Temple to burn for eight days. Also Hanukah refers to education. By studying Torah, grace and favor from G-d is a reward.[937] The first letter of Hanukah is the Het. The Het is the eight letter of the alphabet symbolizing immortality in Judaism much like the number 8 turned on its side ∞. There are seven days in the holiday of Sukkot and the eighth-day Shemini Etzeret is a festival between G-d and Israel symbolizing the world to come.[938] Hanukah is similar to Sukkot and is a festival reminding us of the world to come. Also it is thanksgiving type of holiday worthy of recounting all of the miracles that G-d has performed for us on all of days of the years of our lives.

Within the word for Hanukah are the words for dedication and education. The oil on Hanukah is an important symbol as well for the holiday. Shemen or oil is also fat in Hebrew as in the ‘fat of the land.’ Oil symbolizes prosperity and money. Hence the idea of giving Hanukah gelt or coins developed for the hope of assisting in a child’s education.

We all have a root soul and each of us must work to purify that part of the root’s body, which we represent. All our actions affect our root soul. Our actions affect other branches of the same root soul.[939]

Meditation 8-10: Princess and Prince
In this meditation, the four angels lifted me toward the sapphire firmament described by Ezekiel. I glimpsed the form of a man on the other side and then passed through. The man had a diadem on his forehead and was of youthful form with dark hair and a lean face, quite handsome. He was the Prince, Zer Anpin and I had a discussion with him. He explained the nature of the longing of the Prince for the Princess. The Princess is joined to the Prince through the prayers of people, which elevates us to G-d. The Prince’s situation is the paradigm, root source, of loneliness. I became friends with the Prince and I took him down to our world to see the beauty of mountains, the desert, and small rivers with grass beds. He saw through my eyes and then assisted me in bringing down his Father and Mother. “Everyone here but the Princess”, I commented. He said that the Princess is here too, but that her presence is in the spiritual form of the good feelings from our world, from us.

He said, now I will give you a gift and he pushed me upwards into the spiritual heavens. I beheld a white angel with a beautiful face. His robes were like a candle flame and I held them as we ascended. All around there were souls busying themselves and mirrors.[940] Eventually the angel brought me into a dark chamber higher up. Here was a man in dark robes with a small gray beard and gray hair and a pointed face. His appearance was scary. He was the root soul of the others. He was the root soul of myself.[941]

I had a dream about the princess, the Shechinah. She is young and in this world quite sick, has vshalom, yet she will be whole again, with our effort and G-d’s help.[942]

Meditation 8-11: Princess Healing
I saw myself in a hospital in old age. Just sick from time and neglect I suppose. A nurse brought in a second patient who was a young blonde girl, maybe 9. She was sick from a tumor in her body. A nurse came in and gave her, her first injection of chemotherapy. She was quite scared to be in the hospital. At one point she was scared to be alone and she came over to me. I felt a large tumor just above her hip on her side. I knew that I could heal her. I thought to myself the treatment would involve nutritional adjustment, herbs, and meditative healing. I just felt powerless, thinking that she would be a victim of chemotherapy. I realized I had to take care of my own health to be able to heal her. I knew immediately what I must do to cure myself, quite simply I needed to improve my diet and life style and live with HOPE once more. Then I could help her. She gave me a reason to live. Even in old age there is a power to heal and help others, we only need to be needed to have a reason to live. The princess needs our help, no time to die.

The young girl represents the Shechinah who wanders in this world sick and removed from G-d. Our spirit is the young girl. We are trying to heal her, physically, but the cause of her illness is something else entirely. Cancer, G-d forbid, in a child is often beyond environmental cause and nutritional remedy. For this reason, the better healing approach is to apply the hand of the mind to withdraw the illness from her body in a supernatural manner. Didn’t have time to finish the remedy in the dream.

Hanukah is a holiday of joy as well. Hillel taught on Hanukah that we light the candles in increasing order so that we increase the light in our lives. Similarly, by increasing the light of joy and happiness we are healing ourselves spiritually. The story is similar to Rabbi Nachman’s Seventh Beggar. It is really the prince who needs to be cured. How does the princess cure the prince? Her illness makes him aware that he must be healthy to help her and she gives him spirit and he returns her to health.

It is meritorious to set the menorah below 10 tefahim (handbreadths) – 30 to 40 inches to teach us that Hashem comes to us when we are feeling low. We light 36 candles excluding the Shamash over the course of 8 days to teach us that there are 36 righteous souls for whom the world is always preserved. They are known as the Lamed Vavniks. On Hanukah we are reminded of the light of Hashem that they reflect in the world. The Shamash symbolizes G-d watching over us and his supervision of the other candles.

### 8.3.10 Tevet

The letter ע – ayin holds the power of self-control, particularly for anger. Learn from those born under the sign the tikkun for anger. Ayin has both a guttural and silent form. There is a sublimation of anger in guttural noises and ultimately a silent reply to those who hurt us.

Many of Hillel’s students died on the Tenth of Tevet that is a fast day. My Grandfather Moshe ben Ovadiah died on this day. Nebuchadnetzar, King of Babylonia, laid siege to Jerusalem on this day and 3 years later on the 9th of Tamuz the walls were breached. With the siege came terrible famine:

Text 8-23: Famine under the Siege of Babylon
‘And the city came under siege... and famine became intense in the city.’ The daughters of Zion gathered in the market places, and upon seeing each other, one would say to the other: why have you come out to the market place, for you have never done so? The other answered and said: shall I hide it from you? The plague of famine is hard. I cannot bear it. They held on to each other, and went about the city seeking food, but did not find it. They embraced the pillars and died in every corner. Their suckling children crawled about on hand and foot, each one recognizing his mother, and seeking to nurse milk from her. When the child found no nourishment, his life was severed, and he died in his mother’s lap’ (Pesikta Raba 26).[943]

The 8th and 9th of Tevet are called ‘fast-days-for-the-righteous’ and observe the misunderstandings of the Greek translation of the Torah on the 8th, and the death of Ezra the Scribe on th 9th. The ultimate aim of the fast day as well at the nine days leading up is repentance and return to G-d. This is a time to restrict pleasure and examine our deeds and improve for the future.

Text 8-24: Tenth of Tevet 5766
In the year 5766, I suffered food poisoning on the 7th of Tevet lasting through the 8th of Tevet. On the 9th of Tevet, I bit my right lower lip which has led to further bites on its swolleness. On the Tenth of Tevet, Hashem gave us a miracle and we had large minyans in the synagogue with out of town guests. In the evening, I saw my grandfather rejoicing with us. In the morning, I saw him crying with us. In the evening when kaddish was said I saw his elevation in the white clouds of light being drawn up into heaven. In the morning when kaddish was said I saw him holding back, wanting to stay with his children, wanting to help us. When the vacuum became too great his soul turn into flames of fire praying with us while white smoke ascended and swirled as clouds into heaven. 58067that is 13 and 13 teaches us to love G-d who loves us always.

Nevertheless the sign for Tevet holds the tikkun for anger and those born under this sign are able to control their anger and achieve great leadership. This power is at its peak during the full moon. There is no other constellation that offers the power to control ones anger.

### 8.3.11 Shevat

The Sefer Yetzirah teaches with the letter צ – tzadi God formed the month of Shevat, which denotes the righteous One who is compared to a complete Tree. All of her midos are in proper balance. As the tree is sustained with water—mayim has the gematria of 90, the same as the tzadi. On the 15th day of the month during the full moon is the holiday of Tu B’shevat, which is a day to plant trees. In Israel one plants trees at this time to keep track of the three-year requirement before one is permitted to eat the fruit of the tree. This is a fitting time to study the Torah, see Sec. 24.14 Tree of Life p.1104

The following describes a meditation that cures paranoia. The visualization can be done at any time and in any place and should be effective.[944]

Meditation 8-12: Healing the Body by Meditating on the Sefirot Within
On Tu B’shevat, search out apples or other fruit that appear like they are calling you. Part of the healing of the holiday is releasing the sparks in these fruit. Bring the person you wish to heal to a meditation that day. The meditation involves ascending through the sefirot of the person’s body, focusing on healing those sefirot that are out of balance. In the case of paranoia, the sefira of Gevurah will be cold. Imagine a warm fuzzy white cloud encompassing the sefira softening its hardness moment by moment.

Next, begin to merge your mind into the mind of the other. Feel his or her thoughts. What do you hear? One may hear phrases like, “I don’t want to be here,” “Don’t judge me,” “I wish they could stay together.” These phrases will reflect the root causes of the development of the illness in the person’s past.

Now, call upon the angel Raphael and he will place his hand on the left side of your head transmitting a healing energy from Hashem to the Gevurah in your soul.

Afterwards say the blessing over the fruit and release the sparks within.

This meditation is helpful for improving ones relationship with the world.[945]

Meditation 8-13: Extend our Branches Far and Wide
I saw myself as a sapling being planted for the holiday. My brothers and sisters stood around in the soil beneath me. This was a simple life, yet beautiful and complete. Day to day I would follow the sun across the sky, turning my leaves in his direction always. After three years I saw there was fruit on my limbs and the first harvest was at hand. As the fruit was taken, I felt relief, a weight removed from me.

Just as the tree changes and moves in its life so should a person change and move. All movements bring knowledge. As the tree ages and its form changes, it becomes somewhat rigid, but there are still movements in the growth of its appearance. Our existence is eternal; though the life we have in this world is only a short span. We should not dwell on past mistakes for they are finite and fleeting. Our lives recur until we get it right.

Like a tree we should extend our branches far and wide. In this manner we meet more people and this interaction brings knowledge and happiness. Instead of striving to find the right person in life, we should strive to grow towards G-d, which also means involvement in meeting new people and learning and having fun.

To find a mate, pursue activities that bring one together with other eligible partners rather than professional matchmakers.

I saw jesus on the cross crying out to Hashem about being forsaken. I saw G-d respond that because of his great concern about the end of his life; he would magnify the meaning of his death.

At the end of the vision, I asked to see the source of the answers I was receiving. I saw the form of the Glory of G-d who was draped in regal robes with a scepter in His right hand; yet I could not see His face. He stood in a central area while above in a circle there were angels all around. He would turn from one to another assigning a mission and immediately the angel would depart.

In every apple there is a 5-pointed star, which refers to man’s body as he stands on a mountain receiving the light of God that he shares with his world. On Tu B’shevat, the New Year of the Trees, we are blessed to partake of this light to a greater degree. See 9.5.1 and [946].946

Meditation 8-14: Four fruits and four worlds
Selected the coconut, the pepino-melumber, the kiwano-horned melon, and the citron-buddah’s hand. The pepino tastes like a cross between a cucumber and a melon. The coconut represents the world of Asiyah – hard on the outside, but there is something sweet tasting within, the coconut juice. The pepino represents Yetzirah, the world of the angels as its taste is healthy not to sweet, but with cleansing juices. Similarly the angels bring good and bad decrees, but all are for our ultimate good. The horned melon represents Beriyah, which is the throne world of G-d. It is filled with different seed locations resembling the rooms of the palace of G-d. The citron-buddah’s hand represents Asiyah for its fragrance exceeds its taste just as smell is the highest sensory faculty of the spirit. The different fingers resemble the sefirot. The citron-ethrog has the same smell while its flavor cleanses the body.

The month of Adar is symbolized by the letter ק – koof, which denotes laughter. One needs to make an extra effort to be happy in this month, which like all yearends can bring back nostalgic memories and melancholy. The holiday of Purim occurs in this month and is one of two festive holidays where one is advised to get inebriated. The other holiday of this sort is Simhas Torah in the month of Tishrei.

#### 8.3.12.1 Fast of Esther

Ta’anit Esther, the Fast of Esther is held on the 13th of Adar except when Purim falls on Shabbat evening whereupon it is held on the 11th of Adar the preceding Thursday. It begins at sunrise, for the more devout – machmar, 72 minutes before sunrise, before the first light of day; and ends at sunset, for the more devout – machmar, 40 minutes after sunset at shekiah, the sighting of the first three stars of night. This is a holiday to remember the devotion of how a Jewish woman saved her entire people although cloaked in her identity by putting herself into captivity in a foreign ruler’s palace. The bravery and courage that she exhibited are perhaps unrivaled in all of Jewish history. In so doing, she forfeited her own right for a Jewish husband and future. Nevertheless, her son was Darius 2, who enabled the Jews to return to Israel and rebuild the Temple. Similarly, we should commemorate all Jewish women on this day those who came before us and those present today for their incomparable service in the preservation of our people. For we would not be Jews today if it was not for the conviction of Jewish women in their simple observance of commandments and ritual that is so easily cast aside by Jewish men.

#### 8.3.12.2 Purim

The name of G-d is not mentioned in the Book of Esther. The reason for this is that Hashem was ashamed of the Jewish people who failed to accept Timna as a convert and ashamed of the response of her descendents.[947]

Text 8-25: Purim and acceptance of the convert
Rav Kook then quoted the Talmudic statement in Sanhedrin 99b that Timna wanted to marry into the family of Abraham but was not accepted. In the end, she became the concubine of Esau's eldest son. ‘Better to be a maidservant to this people,’ Timna reasoned, ‘than a princess of another people.’ As punishment for rejecting Timna, the Jewish people were cursed with the eternal enmity of Timna's son — Amalek.

This of course is the connection to the story of Purim, for Haman, the enemy of the Jews, was a descendant of Amalek. Haman's hatred of the Jews and his decree to destroy them in fact originated in the failure to convert his great-grandmother Timna. But this error was redressed in the time of Mordechai and Esther, when "Many of the peoples of the land became Jews" (Esther 8:17).
Text 8-26: Sanhedrin 99b
Our Rabbis taught: But the soul that doeth aught presumptuously:10 this refers to Manasseh the Son of Hezekiah, who examined [Biblical] narratives to prove them worthless. Thus, he jeered, had Moses nothing to write but, and Lotan's sister was Timna,11 and Timna was concubine to Eliphaz,12 and Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest, and found mandrakes in the field.13 Thereupon a Heavenly Voice cried out: “You sit and speak against your brother; You slander your own mother's son. These things you have done, and I kept silent; You thought that I was just like you but I will reprove you, and state the case in order before your eyes.”14 And of him it is explicitly stated in the post-Mosaic Scriptures,15 “woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart rope.”16 What is meant by ‘and sin as it were with a cart rope’? — R. Assi said: Temptation at first is like a spider's thread, but eventually like a cart rope.

A propos, what is the purpose of [writing], And Lotan's sister was Timna? — Timna was a royal princess, as it is written, alluf [duke] Lotan,17 alluf [duke] Timna;18 and by ‘alluf’ an uncrowned ruler is meant. Desiring to become a proselyte, she went to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, but they did not accept her. So she went and became a concubine to Eliphaz the son of Esau, saying, ‘I had rather be a servant to this people than a mistress of another nation.’ From her Amalek was descended who afflicted Israel. Why so? — Because they should not have repulsed her.

And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest [and found mandrakes in the field]. Raba b. Isaac said in Rab's name: “This shews that righteous men do not take what is not theirs.”19 And found dudaim20 [mandrakes] in the field. What are dudaim? — Rab said: mandrakes;21 Levi said: violets; R. Jonathan said: mandrake flowers.

(10) Num. XV, 30.
(11) Gen. XXXVI, 22 that there is a significant story behind the mention of Timna, per the next paragraph, “A propos...”.
(12) Ibid. 12.
(13) Ibid. XXX, 14.
(14) Ps. L, 20 f.
(15) Kabbalah is used in contradistinction to Torah, the Pentateuch in reference to Manasseh the Son of Hezekiah.
(16) Isa. V, 18.
(17) Gen. XXXVI, 28.
(18) Ibid. 40.
(19) Lit., stretch forth their hands to theft.’ Since Reuben went when the fields had already been reaped, after which it is permissible for all to enter (Rashi). Maharsha explains: The wheat had not yet been harvested, but Reuben was careful to take only mandrakes, to which the owner of the field would not object.
(20) דודאים
(21) יברוחי ‘the chaser’, perhaps on account of its use to expel demons ; v. Ginzberg, Legends, V, 298, n. 189.]
Text 8-27: Drash on Sanhedrin 99b from a lecture by Rav Yaacov Haber
In the middle of the lineage, we read that Esav’s son Elifaz had a concubine named Timna, and that Timna gave birth to a son named Amalek. What's Timna's story, and what led her son to become archenemy number one of the Jewish people?

The Talmud tells us a fascinating story about Timna. Timna, says the Talmud, was born from an aristocratic family. She's described as the “daughter of Kings.” But she heard about Abraham's family and their belief in monotheism, and she became determined to join Abraham's movement. Abraham, we know, was accepting many many converts to his new religion. The Torah refers to “all the souls that Abraham made in Charan.” Timna wanted to be one such convert to Abraham's new religion.

Abraham, however, thought that Timna was not a true believer in monotheism. So he rejected her, and apparently did so in a way that she felt was rude. But she didn't give up; she waited a while and then went to Abraham’s son Isaac (Yitzchak). Isaac also said no. So she waited a while and went to Jacob (Yaakov). And Jacob also said no. She became depressed, but was still determined to join the family. She ended up deciding to become a concubine of Elifaz the son of Esav, saying, “it's better to be in a lowly position in this family than to be in a high position in another family.” But because of her feelings for Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, she gave birth to Amalek, who in the words of the Talmud “pushed at the Jewish people with two hands.”

This story is tremendously powerful. The Talmud is putting responsibility for Amalek's origins on the shoulders of the Jewish forefathers!

The phrase “push with two hands” is Talmudic terminology for treating someone as altogether bad. The Talmud elsewhere tells us that in all circumstances we are obligated to push people away (if we have to) only with our left hand, and to simultaneously pull them closer with our right. Even if we have to push someone away, we have to do so in a way that brings him or her closer as well.

Note that the Talmud is not saying this only about converts. It applies to teachers who have to discipline students, parents who have to discipline children, and all Jews that ever have to admonish others. The Talmud says that we have to do this “le'olam,” forever, in all circumstances.

Pushing people away with the left hand while bringing them closer with the right means that if we're pushing away one aspect of a person, we have to acknowledge at the same time that the person has many other qualities that are good. The goal in pushing someone away is not that they should be further away, but rather that their problematic aspects be pushed away and that the rest of them be pulled closer.

I think that it's not at all an exageration to say that Jews pushing each other away with two hands is destroying our society. Imagine if every time a Jew had to disagree with another Jew, it was done in a way that was designed to bring the other Jew closer in the process. No throwing stones, no insulting, no disregarding, just an attempt to disagree in a way that moves us towards, not away from, Jewish unity.

If we can all learn the lesson from Amalek's origins, and can all learn to follow the Talmud's command to always push people away only with one hand while bringing them closer with the other, then hopefully, with G-d's help, we can be redeemed from all of our current problems just as on Purim the Jews of Shushan were saved from Haman's threat.

The question arises, ‘Why do some people wear costumes on Purim?’ There is a teaching that one should drink on Purim to the point of not knowing the difference between Haman and Mordechi. How better to test this then by looking at each other in costume? A more sublime explanation deals with Esther’s name, which means “to cover up” or “to hide”. Esther hid her identity and yet arose like Moses to save her people. By concealing her identity Esther rose to a position of power. Yet, she did not forget her Jewish identity. We wear costumes to remind us that even if our surface appearance changes, we are still the same underneath.

Another aspect of concealment is that God’s Name is hidden throughout the Book of Esther. Nevertheless, He is still the force of redemption. The costume may also represent our true self that is normally hidden from others. When Esther dressed in her royal clothes to reveal herself to her King to plead for mercy, her costume represented her True self.

The second Adar has no sign associated with it, and therefore, according to Rabbi Ephrayim (quoted by the Chidah) witchcraft has no power over one born during this month. According to the Bnei Yisaschar (Discourse 1 on Adar), who quotes an ancient oral tradition, Haman’s decree for the destruction of the Jews was set for the second Adar. Haman, according to the Ari, was the incarnation of the primal serpent and was a magician (in Hebrew the word for serpent Nachash is related to the word for malevolent magician, menaches), as characteristic of the Amalekite nation in general, G-d nullified his intention of destruction by causing the lot to be cast for the second Adar which is not associated with an astrological sign and is therefore impervious to malevolent magical influence.[948]

## 8.4 Week [TABLES]

Each shavua – שבוע – week reminds of the process of creation. There are various correspondences with each day of the week.[949]

Table 8-4: The Sevens of Creation
 Sefirot Character Days of the Week Double Letter Doubles of LifeQuality Direction Metals Hesed Kindness Sunday Bet – ב Wisdom ↔ Folly South Silver Gevurah Judgment Monday Gimmel – ג Wealth ↔ Poverty North Gold Tiferets Beauty Tuesday Dalet – ד Seed ↔ Desolation East Copper Netzah Victory Wednesday Caph – כ Life ↔ Death Up Tin Hod Thankfulness Thursday Peh – פ Rulership ↔ Subjugation Down Lead Yesod Righteousness Friday Resh – ר Peace ↔ War West Mercury Malchuts Kingship Shabbat Tav – ת Grace ↔ Ugliness Center Iron

The double letters reveal the Gilgul or circle of life. God created all of the stars and planets on Wednesday and there are more than seven planets.[950]

Text 8-29: Aryeh Kaplan on Peace and War
Peace and war relate both to nations and to the individual.
A person can be at war or peace with himself.
These letters transmit these qualities both to oneself and others.[951]

### 8.4.1 Rishon – Sunday

Kindness is associated with Sunday, the first day of the week. The planetary ruler of the first hour of the day is the Sun from which the Romans gave it the name.

Text 8-30: Fear of G-d, Beginning of Wisdom, and Trust
The fear of G-d is the beginning of Wisdom.
(Proverbs 1:7)

Who is among you that feareth the LORD, that obeyeth the voice of his servant, that walketh in darkness, and hath no light? Let him trust in the name of the LORD, and stay upon his G-d.
(Isaiah 50:10)

Ravin bar R. Adda said in the name of R. Isaac: He who regularly attends a house of prayer, but fails to come one day–the Holy One, blessed be He, inquires about him, saying, “Who is among you that feareth the Lord, that obeyeth the voice of His servant? Yet now walketh off in darkness and hath no light?” If [he walked off in darkness away from the house of prayer] for a religious purpose, he will continue to have light; if for a secular purpose, he will have no light.[952]

### 8.4.2 Sheni – Monday

Judgment associates with Monday. On Mondays and Thursdays, Hashem holds back some of the good light so that we may learn to return to him. In order to make up for this light, we recite the Torah portion in shul on those days to bring the light of G-d down through learning. In addition, Mondays and Thursdays are chosen for self-appointed fasts to return to G-d.

### 8.4.3 Shlishi – Tuesday

G-d blessed Tuesday twice in the creation story. Beauty and splendor associate with Tuesday. The energy of the day facilitates torah learning and knowing truth.

### 8.4.4 Revaee – Wednesday

Wednesday associates with the upper prophecy of Moses. The energy of the day facilitates victory in undertakings and the joy of success, which is required to experience prophecy. Wednesday evenings are particularly suited for meditation for at this time the upper prophecy descends to the lower prophecy in our world.

### 8.4.5 Hamishi – Thursday

Thursday associates with the lower prophecy of Aaron the priest. This manifestation of prophecy is in life lessons and service to Hashem. The energy of the day is particularly suited to remind us of the need to show gratitude to Hashem and others in our life.

### 8.4.6 Shishi – Friday

Righteousness associates with Friday. The energy facilitates preparation for Shabbat. Towards the end of Friday, Hashem grants an extra energy to finish the work of the week.

### 8.4.7 Shabbat – Saturday

Shabbat begins on Friday evening following the blessing after lighting the candles or at sundown (Shkiat Hachama – setting of the sun). The Shabbat candles symbolize the menorah that will one day stand again in the Holy Temple.[953] The candlesticks should not be moved during the entire Sabbath. Afterwards they can be cleaned of wax by putting them in hot water. Another way is to freeze them and the wax will peel off, or a hair dryer can be used to melt the wax off. Shabbat ends at Havdalah or when three stars are seen in the night sky (Tzait Hakochavim – stars go out) or 72 minutes after sunset. The blessing, “Baruch hamavdil ben koshesh l’hol” (bless the distinguishing between the holy and secular) is recited to announce the change. When we learn not demean the secular and to honor the holy, we will recognize the partnership, and we will resolve the conflicts between the daati and hiloni (religious and secular).[954] This is the union between Nukvah and the six sefirot of Partzuf Ben.

Observing the Shabbat is one of the keys to achieving closeness to Hashem. This is the day when Hashem releases an extra portion of blessing stored in Malchut for our world. This is similar to the extra portion of manna that the Israelites had for Shabbat while wandering in the Wilderness. We call the extra portion released from Malchuts, the Shechinah that is the presence of G-d.

• Whoever is careful with Shabbat observance will be forgiven for all his sins even idolatry.
• Respecting the Shabbat is greater than fasting a thousand days.
• If the children of Israel would observe one Shabbat properly, the Moshiach would immediately come.
• If your children accept the observance of the Shabbat, they will merit entering the land of Israel.
• Whoever takes pleasure in the enjoyment of the Shabbat will be granted all of his heart’s desires.
• Observing the Shabbat is equal to fulfilling all the mitzvoth of the Torah.
• Proper Observance of one Shabbat is equivalent to having observed all the Shabbatoth since creation.

#### 8.4.7.1 Fire on Shabbat

The prohibition from lighting fire on Shabbat stems from Exodus 35:3.

לֹא־תְבַעֲר֣וּ אֵ֔שׁ בְּכֹ֖ל מֹשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם בְּיֹ֖ום הַשַּׁבָּֽת׃ פ

“Do not burn fire in all your dwellings on the day of Shabbat.” From Exodus 35:2 one might infer that this is a form of melacha that is creative work: “Six days you can make things but on the 7th day will be for you a separate (holy) shabbat of cessation to for the Lord of works of making.”

Questions in the prohibition include:
• What if the fire is not from burning coal or wood, e.g. it is from natural gas like furnaces that go on and off by temperature in the house. They are in the furnace room which isn’t a room one dwells in? Perhaps gas is not the same in quality as that of wood burning?
• The interpretation of the verse has been starting a fire or stopping one. This is the transference of the spark of fire. Clearly candles burn on Shabbat that were started before. A blech can run with a fire started before Shabbat.
• T’vah-ah-ru means burn but is translated as kindle in most places?
• Inside a dwelling, but what of outside is that prohibitied too?

Clearly one needs to be familiar with the context to understand the biblical intention of the verse. The Israelites lived in tent dwelling areas and later towns. The injunction goes back to the time of Moses where folks were tent dwellers in the desert. Burning a fire in a tent to keep warm would be possible but difficult with the pollution. Instead court yards between tents probably existed. The prior verse is strong in prohibiting works of creation which suggests starting a fire. Nevertheless wood fires require tending and it seems very unlikely that one could start such a fire before Shabbat and not have to adjust it during Shabbat! So Exodus 35:3 appears additional to 35:2, namely not only shall you not do a work of creation on Shabbat, but you shall not even leave a fire burning on Shabbat? Kasha, also when you consider the Temple offerings on Shabbat which Rav Kook examines.

The alternative interpretation of considering the material burning seems important. Wood has to be arranged and stacked to have a fire. This is a creative work. Natural gas, propane gas, or a candle require little or no work. Gasoline engines are already prepared to do combustion. It seems that these devices do not have the same creative building as a wood fire requires.

The key here is not fire that is prohibited but T’vah-ah-ru Fire – burning fire that I will say means an arranged wood, paper, or coal based fire. The violation of the commandment has more to do with the arrangement and adjustment of the burning materials while the fire is present on Shabbat. Offerings were done on an altar during Shabbat. How was the fire on the altar maintained if it was from wood? In this case it would seem that the priests added wood to the altar or adjusted the fire on Shabbat. How does that make sense with the prohibition?

Text 8-31: Rav Kook: (Gold from the Land of Israel, pp. 164-165. Adapted from Ein Eyah vol. III, p. 53)

“Do not ignite fire in any of your dwellings on the Sabbath.” (Ex. 35:3)

The Torah forbids 39 different categories of activity on the Sabbath. Yet only one — lighting fire — is explicitly prohibited in the Torah. Why? Why does the Torah qualify the prohibition of lighting fire with the phrase, “in any of your dwellings"? Is it not forbidden to start a fire in any location?

The control and use of fire is unique to humanity. It is the basis for our advances in science and innovations in technology. Even now, fuel sources for burning, coal and oil, are what power modern societies. In short, fire is a metaphor for our power and control over nature, the fruit of our God-given intelligence.

What is the central message of the Sabbath? When we refrain from working on the seventh day, we acknowledge that God is the Creator of the world.

One might think that only the pristine natural world is truly the work of God. Human technology, on the other hand, is artificial and perhaps alien to the true purpose of the universe. Therefore, the Torah specifically prohibits lighting fire on the Sabbath, emphasizing that our progress in science and technology is also part of creation. Everything is included in the ultimate design of the universe. Our advances and inventions contribute towards the goal of creation in accordance with God’s sublime wisdom.

Along with the recognition that all of our accomplishments are in essence the work of God, we must also be aware that we have tremendous power to change and improve the world. This change will be for a blessing if we are wise enough to utilize our technology within the guidelines of integrity and holiness.

Fire in the Temple

This caveat leads to the second question we asked: why does the Torah limit the prohibition of lighting fire on the Sabbath to “your dwellings"? The Talmud (Shabbat 20a) explains that lighting fire is only forbidden in private dwellings, but in the Temple, it is permitted to burn offerings on the Sabbath. Why should fire be permitted in the Temple?

The holy Temple was a focal point of prophecy and Divine revelation. It was the ultimate source of enlightenment, for both the individual and the nation. The fire used in the Temple is a metaphor for our mission to improve the world through advances in science and technology. We need to internalize the message that it is up to us to develop and advance the world, until the entire universe is renewed with a new heart and soul, with understanding and harmony. Permitting the technological innovation of fire in Temple on the Sabbath indicates that God wants us to utilize our intellectual gifts to innovate and improve, in a fashion similar to God’s own creative acts.

We need to be constantly aware of our extraordinary potential when we follow the path that our Maker designated for us. At this spiritual level, we should not think that we are incapable of accomplishing new things. As the Talmud declares, ‘If they desire, the righteous can create worlds’ (Sanhedrin 65b). When humanity attains ethical perfection, justice will then guide all of our actions, and scientific advances and inventions will draw their inspiration from the source of Divine morality, the holy Temple.

#### 8.4.7.2 Biblical sources for rule of Shabbat

Biblical sources for the rules of Shabbat include Exodus 34:21, Nehemiah 13:15-18 as well as those expanded below:[955]

Text 8-32: Exodus 16:25-31
 כה  וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אִכְלֻהוּ הַיּוֹם, כִּי-שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה:  הַיּוֹם, לֹא תִמְצָאֻהוּ בַּשָּׂדֶה. 25 And Moses said: 'Eat that today; for today is a sabbath unto the LORD; today ye shall not find it in the field. כו  שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים, תִּלְקְטֻהוּ; וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת, לֹא יִהְיֶה-בּוֹ. 26 Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day is the sabbath, in it there shall be none.' כז  וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי, יָצְאוּ מִן-הָעָם לִלְקֹט; וְלֹא, מָצָאוּ.  {ס} 27 And it came to pass on the seventh day, that there went out some of the people to gather, and they found none. {S} כח  וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה, אֶל-מֹשֶׁה:  עַד-אָנָה, מֵאַנְתֶּם, לִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֹתַי, וְתוֹרֹתָי. 28 And the LORD said unto Moses: 'How long refuse ye to keep My commandments and My laws? כט  רְאוּ, כִּי-יְהוָה נָתַן לָכֶם הַשַּׁבָּת--עַל-כֵּן הוּא נֹתֵן לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי, לֶחֶם יוֹמָיִם; שְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחְתָּיו, אַל-יֵצֵא אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ--בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי. 29 See that the LORD hath given you the sabbath; therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.' ל  וַיִּשְׁבְּתוּ הָעָם, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִעִי. 30 So the people rested on the seventh day. לא  וַיִּקְרְאוּ בֵית-יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת-שְׁמוֹ, מָן; וְהוּא, כְּזֶרַע גַּד לָבָן, וְטַעְמוֹ, כְּצַפִּיחִת בִּדְבָשׁ. 31 And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna; and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey.

Commerce on Shabbat will not avail us any food; thus, we are commanded to cease from work on the seventh day and make it holy.

Text 8-33: Isaiah 58 13-14
 יג  אִם-תָּשִׁיב מִשַּׁבָּת רַגְלֶךָ, עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶךָ בְּיוֹם קָדְשִׁי; וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג, לִקְדוֹשׁ יְהוָה מְכֻבָּד, וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ, מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר. 13 If thou turn away thy foot because of the sabbath, from pursuing thy business (lit. what delights you) on My holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, and the holy of the LORD honourable; and shalt honour it, not doing thy wonted ways, nor pursuing thy business, nor speaking thereof; יד  אָז, תִּתְעַנַּג עַל-יְהוָה, וְהִרְכַּבְתִּיךָ, עַל-במותי (בָּמֳתֵי) אָרֶץ; וְהַאֲכַלְתִּיךָ, נַחֲלַת יַעֲקֹב אָבִיךָ--כִּי פִּי יְהוָה, דִּבֵּר.  {פ} 14 Then shalt thou delight thyself in the LORD, and I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father; for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it. {P}

Isaiah explains that we should not do what delights us on Shabbat. This includes carrying out chores that are work related as described below in Table 8-5 as well as the more obvious acts of commerce, buying, selling, shopping, and eating at restaurants, which imposes work on others.

Text 8-34: Amos 8:4-7
 ד  שִׁמְעוּ-זֹאת, הַשֹּׁאֲפִים אֶבְיוֹן; וְלַשְׁבִּית, ענוי- (עֲנִיֵּי-) אָרֶץ. 4 Hear this, O ye that would swallow the needy, and destroy the poor of the land, ה  לֵאמֹר, מָתַי יַעֲבֹר הַחֹדֶשׁ וְנַשְׁבִּירָה שֶּׁבֶר, וְהַשַּׁבָּת, וְנִפְתְּחָה-בָּר--לְהַקְטִין אֵיפָה וּלְהַגְדִּיל שֶׁקֶל, וּלְעַוֵּת מֹאזְנֵי מִרְמָה. 5 Saying: 'When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell grain? and the sabbath, that we may set forth corn? making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances of deceit; ו  לִקְנוֹת בַּכֶּסֶף דַּלִּים, וְאֶבְיוֹן בַּעֲבוּר נַעֲלָיִם; וּמַפַּל בַּר, נַשְׁבִּיר. 6 That we may buy the poor for silver, and the needy for a pair of shoes, and sell the refuse of the corn?' ז  נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה, בִּגְאוֹן יַעֲקֹב; אִם-אֶשְׁכַּח לָנֶצַח, כָּל-מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם. 7 The LORD hath sworn by the pride of Jacob: Surely I will never forget any of their works.

The prohibition of selling on Shabbat is intended to remind us of the poor who should eat freely amongst the community.

Text 8-35: Jeremiah 22
 יט  כֹּה-אָמַר יְהוָה אֵלַי, הָלֹךְ וְעָמַדְתָּ בְּשַׁעַר בְּנֵי-עם (הָעָם), אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בוֹ מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה, וַאֲשֶׁר יֵצְאוּ בוֹ; וּבְכֹל, שַׁעֲרֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם. 19 Thus said the LORD unto me: Go, and stand in the gate of the children of the people, whereby the kings of Judah come in, and by which they go out, and in all the gates of Jerusalem; כ  וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם שִׁמְעוּ דְבַר-יְהוָה מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה, וְכָל-יְהוּדָה, וְכֹל, יֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם--הַבָּאִים, בַּשְּׁעָרִים הָאֵלֶּה. 20 and say unto them: Hear ye the word of the LORD, ye kings of Judah, and all Judah, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, that enter in by these gates; כא  כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה, הִשָּׁמְרוּ בְּנַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם; וְאַל-תִּשְׂאוּ מַשָּׂא בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, וַהֲבֵאתֶם בְּשַׁעֲרֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם. 21 thus saith the LORD: Take heed for the sake of your souls, and bear no burden on the sabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem; כב  וְלֹא-תוֹצִיאוּ מַשָּׂא מִבָּתֵּיכֶם בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, וְכָל-מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ; וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶת-אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם. 22 neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the sabbath day, neither do ye any work; but hallow ye the sabbath day, as I commanded your fathers; כג  וְלֹא שָׁמְעוּ, וְלֹא הִטּוּ אֶת-אָזְנָם; וַיַּקְשׁוּ, אֶת-עָרְפָּם, לְבִלְתִּי שומע (שְׁמוֹעַ), וּלְבִלְתִּי קַחַת מוּסָר. 23 but they hearkened not, neither inclined their ear, but made their neck stiff, that they might not hear, nor receive instruction. כד  וְהָיָה אִם-שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּן אֵלַי, נְאֻם-יְהוָה, לְבִלְתִּי הָבִיא מַשָּׂא בְּשַׁעֲרֵי הָעִיר הַזֹּאת, בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת; וּלְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת-בֹּה כָּל-מְלָאכָה. 24 And it shall come to pass, if ye diligently hearken unto Me, saith the LORD, to bring in no burden through the gates of this city on the sabbath day, but to hallow the sabbath day, to do no work therein; כה  וּבָאוּ בְשַׁעֲרֵי הָעִיר הַזֹּאת מְלָכִים וְשָׂרִים יֹשְׁבִים עַל-כִּסֵּא דָוִד רֹכְבִים בָּרֶכֶב וּבַסּוּסִים, הֵמָּה וְשָׂרֵיהֶם--אִישׁ יְהוּדָה, וְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם; וְיָשְׁבָה הָעִיר-הַזֹּאת, לְעוֹלָם. 25 then shall there enter in by the gates of this city kings and princes sitting upon the throne of David, riding in chariots and on horses, they, and their princes, the men of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and this city shall be inhabited forever. כו  וּבָאוּ מֵעָרֵי-יְהוּדָה וּמִסְּבִיבוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם וּמֵאֶרֶץ בִּנְיָמִן, וּמִן-הַשְּׁפֵלָה וּמִן-הָהָר וּמִן-הַנֶּגֶב, מְבִאִים עוֹלָה וְזֶבַח, וּמִנְחָה וּלְבוֹנָה--וּמְבִאֵי תוֹדָה, בֵּית יְהוָה. 26 And they shall come from the cities of Judah, and from the places round about Jerusalem, and from the land of Benjamin, and from the Lowland, and from the mountains, and from the South, bringing burnt-offerings, and sacrifices, and meal-offerings, and frankincense, and bringing sacrifices of thanksgiving, unto the house of the LORD. כז  וְאִם-לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ אֵלַי, לְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, וּלְבִלְתִּי שְׂאֵת מַשָּׂא וּבֹא בְּשַׁעֲרֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם, בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת:  וְהִצַּתִּי אֵשׁ בִּשְׁעָרֶיהָ, וְאָכְלָה אַרְמְנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם--וְלֹא תִכְבֶּה.  {פ} 27 But if ye will not hearken unto Me to hallow the sabbath day, and not to bear a burden and enter in at the gates of Jerusalem on the sabbath day; then will I kindle a fire in the gates thereof, and it shall devour the palaces of Jerusalem, and it shall not be quenched. {P}

Carrying a burden of weight was prohibited on Shabbat, which was a basic form of work in ancient days.

There are 39 types of work prohibited on Shabbat.[956] These are based on the work that was done in setting up the tabernacle. The tabernacle or Mishkan was a moving sanctuary that could be set up with tent walls and other holy articles. The original concepts are interpreted in stricter ways today.[957]

Table 8-5: Creative Works Prohibited on Shabbas
 Work – melacha Torah examples Rabbinical examples Permitted examples Plowing – horaesh – äéøù Turning soil, digging holes, and removing stones from a garden. Sweeping may lead to leveling ground. Planting – zoreah – urwz Planting a tree, watering plants, throwing seeds onto wet soil. Harvesting – kotzar – rxwq Picking fruit Picking a flower Gathering – mamer – rmum [collecting natural produce into a bundle] Putting together a bouquet, collecting natural produce into a field. Threshing – dash – cd [separating a natural product from its natural container] Like English ‘dash’ as in a “dash of salt”. Pressing grapes or olives for juice. Squeezing fruits for juice. Winnowing – zoreh – hrwz [using the wind to separate wanted from unwanted objects] Blowing away nutshells from a mixture of nuts and shells. Selecting – borear – rrwb [separating desirable items from undesirable ones in a mixture] Picking out specific books, dishes, or toys to be put away. Using a slotted spoon for selecting vegetables in soup. Peeling fruit for immediate use is permitted. Grinding – Tohän – }jwf [breaking down a substance into small usable pieces] Grating potatoes or carrots. Making sawdust. Taking medicines. As they were once prepared by grinding there is a prohibition from using them on Shabbas accept under essential circumstances. Crushing crackers or other previously ground foods is permitted on Shabbas. Vegetables may be cut with a knife into small pieces for prompt use. Sifting – Mrakäd – dqrm [separating mixed objects with a strainer] Sifting flower. Removing a tea bag from a cup if tea. Separating spaghetti from water with a strainer. Kneading – Lahsh – cl [combining particles with liquid to form a dough or paste] Mixing cream of wheat or oatmeal cereal into a thick mixture. Mixing cream of wheat or oatmeal cereal into a thin mixture. Baking – Opheh – hpwa [changing the physical state of a substance by heating it] Turning on a hot water faucet (causing cold water to flow into the hot boiler). Stirring cooked food on a flame. Making sun tea. Re-heating dry, cooked solid food. Shearing – Gozaz – zzwg [Detaching non-living parts from a living animal] Cutting nails, cutting hair, pulling out whiskers. Biting nails or skin, combing or brushing if hairs will be uprooted, pulling out wool by hand from a living animal. A very soft brush does not pull out hairs and may be used, Bleaching – Mlaban – }blm [Freeing material from unwanted dirt, stains, dust, etc.] Shaking or cleaning visible dust from dark colored clothing, soaking clothing, wringing out wet clothing, scrubbing clothing. Hanging up clothing to dry may lead people to think it was washed on Shabbath. Barely visible dust may be removed from light-colored clothing, leather surfaces may be washed with water without scraping, wet mud may be removed with a knife. Combing – Mnapatz – {pnm [Untangling clumps of raw material into separate strands.] Raking wool, flax, cotton, etc. Dyeing – Tzoväah – ubwx [Changing or reinforcing color.] Painting, dyeing, coloring with crayons, using oil-based make-up. Food may be colored. Spinning – Toveh – hwwf [Twisting a strand of fiber into thread.] Using a spinning wheel or loom. Threading Loom – Masech – ]sym [Tying the threads from the front to the back roller.] Threading harness Weaving Separating thread Tying Untying Sewing Tearing Trapping Slaughtering Skinning Tanning Smoothing Marking Cutting Building Demolishing Writing Erasing Carrying Final Hammer Blow Kindling Extinguishing

On Friday night, Jews try to have two whole pieces of bread symbolizing the two portions of manna that the Israelites collected in the desert of Sinai. These are the challot or challahs. On Friday, one places a small cut in the smaller loaf places the bigger loaf on top, says the blessing and eats the smaller loaf saving the larger for Saturday. On Saturday, the blessing is said with the bigger challah on top with a whole matzah or other whole bread underneath. These are referred to as Lehem Mishna, the bread of the Mishna, because we are taught their procedure.[958] Nevertheless, because health is a mitzvah and bread is very high in triglycerides, someone at risk might forget to use challah on Shabbat.

Text 8-36: Shmeul Hanagid meets the Prince
Rabbi Shmeul Hanaggid was content with his life in Spain. Though he did not live in the holy land, he had all his needs and time to study Torah. One Shabbas he received a knock on his family door. His son got up to go see who it was and returned saying there is a messenger. Shmeul got up and went to the door, where the messenger brought a message from the Prince requesting his attendance and one of his rugs to sell to wealthy guest from another country that was visiting. Shmeul told the messenger that he cannot come now for it is Shabbas and he cannot violate the command of G-d.

Later a second messenger arrived with the same request, whereupon Shmeul gave the same response. Finally at nightfall motze Shabbas, at the end of Shabbas four guards came whereupon Shemuel agreed to go as Shabbas was now over.

When he came before the Prince, he was surprised to see that he was happy to see him. The prince exclaimed that he had a visiting Prince from a neighboring country and he had said that the Jews are a greedy people that will do anything for a profit. Well we agreed to put you to the test and you showed him wrong, showing that you put G-d and your religion above your own business, even though you knew you would lose a sizeable reward.

Salt is another important item to have on the meal table.[959]

Text 8-37: Salt
In Ezekiel 16:4 we learn that new-born babes were rubbed with salt, a practice still current in the Orient. According to medieval authorities, salt must be set on a table before a meal is begun “because it protects one against Satan’s denunciations.” The Kabbalists were more outspoken: “It drives off the spirits,” they wrote, “because it is the mathematical equivalent of three YHVH’s; therefore one should dip the piece of bread over which the benediction is recited, three times into salt.” “After each meal eat some salt and you will not be harmed.”[960] For this reason salt was used in many rites connected with birth, marriage and death, and in medicine.

The Hebrew word for salt – מלח has gematria 78 that is 3 times 26 for YHVH. Hence we dip thrice reminding us of G-d’s protection.

Text 8-38: Ezekiel 16
1. Again the word of the Lord came to me, saying,
2. Son of man, cause Jerusalem to know her abominations,
3. And say, Thus says the Lord God to Jerusalem; Your birth and your origin is in the land of Canaan; your father was an Amorite, and your mother a Hittite.
4. And as for your birth, in the day you were born your navel was not cut, nor were you washed in water to cleanse you, nor were you rubbed with salt, nor swaddled at all.
5. No eye pitied you, to do any of these to you, to have compassion upon you; but you were thrown out in the open field, for you were loathed, on the day that you were born.
6. And when I passed by you, and saw you weltering in your own blood, I said to you when you were in your blood, Live! Yes, I said to you when you were in your blood, Live!
7. I have caused you to increase like a plant of the field, and you grew up and became tall, and you came to possess great ornaments; your breasts were formed, and your hair grew, yet you were naked and bare.
8. And when I passed by you, and looked upon you, behold, your time was the time of love; and I spread my skirt over you, and covered your nakedness; yes, I swore to you, and entered into a covenant with you, says the Lord God, and you became mine.
9. Then I washed you with water; indeed, I thoroughly washed away your blood from you, and I anointed you with oil.
10. I clothed you also with embroidered cloth, and shod you with leather, and I girded you with fine linen, and I covered you with silk.
11. I decked you also with ornaments, and I put bracelets upon your hands, and a chain on your neck.
13. (K) Thus were you decked with gold and silver; and your garment was of fine linen, and silk, and embroidered cloth; you ate fine flour, and honey, and oil; and you were very beautiful, and you were fit for royal estate.
14. And your fame went forth among the nations for your beauty; for it was perfect through my splendor, which I had bestowed on you, says the Lord God.
15. But you trusted in your own beauty, and played the harlot because of your fame, and lavished your fornications on everyone who passed by; his it was.
16. And you took some of your garments, and made for yourself high places, decked out in various colors, and played the harlot on them; such things shall not come about, nor shall it continue.
17. You have also taken your pretty jewels of my gold and of my silver, which I had given you, and made for yourself male images, and played the harlot with them,
18. (K) And took your embroidered garments, and covered them; and you have set my oil and my incense before them.
19. My bread also which I gave you, fine flour, and oil, and honey, with which I fed you, you have set it before them for a sweet odor; and thus it was, says the Lord God.
20. (K) And you have taken your sons and your daughters, whom you have borne to me, and these you have sacrificed to them to be devoured. Were your harlotries so small a matter,
21. That you have slain my children, and delivered them to cause them to pass through the fire for them?
22. (K) And in all your abominations and your harlotries you have not remembered the days of your youth, when you were naked and bare, and weltering in your blood.
23. And it came to pass after all your wickedness, woe, woe to you! says the Lord God;
24. That you have also built for yourself a platform, and have made for yourself a high place in every street.
25. (K) You have built your high place on every main street, and have made your beauty to be loathed, and have opened your legs to everyone who passed by, and multiplied your harlotries.
26. You have also played the harlot with the Egyptians, your neighbors, large of flesh; and have increased your harlotry, to provoke me to anger.
27. Behold, therefore I have stretched out my hand over you, and have diminished your allotted portion, and delivered you to the will of those who hate you, the daughters of the Philistines, who are ashamed of your lewd way.
28. You have played the harlot also with the Assyrians, because you were insatiable; yes, you have played the harlot with them, and yet you could not be satisfied.
29. You have moreover multiplied your harlotry in the land of Canaan as far as Chaldea; and yet you were not satisfied with that.
30. How weak is your heart, says the Lord God, seeing you do all these things, the work of an importunate harlot;
31. (K) In that you build your platform in every main street, and make your high place in every street; and, because you scorn payment, you have not been like a harlot;
32. But like a wife who commits adultery, who takes strangers instead of her husband!
33. Men give gifts to all harlots; but you give your gifts to all your lovers, and hire them, that they may come to you on every side for your lewd satisfaction.
34. You were the contrary of other women in your harlotry, because none solicited you to commit harlotry; and you paid hire, and no hire was paid to you, therefore you were the contrary.
35. Therefore, O harlot, hear the word of the Lord;
36. Thus says the Lord God; Because your shame was displayed, and your nakedness laid bare through your harlotry with your lovers, and with all the idols of your abominations, and because of the blood of your children, which you gave to them;
37. Behold, therefore I will gather all your lovers, with whom you have taken pleasure, and all those that you have loved, with all those that you have hated; I will gather them around you, and will laid bare your nakedness to them, that they may see all your nakedness.
38. And I will judge you, as women who break wedlock and shed blood are judged; and I will bring upon you the blood of fury and jealousy.
39. And I will also give you into their hand, and they shall tear down your platform, and shall break down your high places; they shall strip you also of your clothes, and shall take your pretty jewels, and leave you naked and bare.
40. They shall also bring up a company against you, and they shall stone you with stones, and thrust you through with their swords.
41. And they shall burn your houses with fire, and execute judgments upon you in the sight of many women; and I will cause you to cease from playing the harlot, and you also shall pay hire no more.
42. And I will relieve my fury upon you, and my jealousy shall depart from you, and I will be quiet, and I will be angry no more.
43. (K) Because you have not remembered the days of your youth, but have enraged me in all these things; behold, therefore I also will reward your ways upon your head, says the Lord God; for you have not taken thought concerning your abominations.
44. Behold, everyone who uses proverbs shall use this proverb against you, saying, Like mother, like daughter.
45. You are your mother’s daughter, who loathes her husband and her children; and you are the sister of your sisters, who loathed their husbands and their children; your mother was a Hittite, and your father an Amorite.
46. And your elder sister is Samaria, she and her daughters who dwell at your left hand; and your younger sister, who dwells at your right hand, is Sodom and her daughters.
47. (K) Yet you have not walked after their ways, nor done after their abominations; and after a little while you were more corrupt than they in all your ways.
48. As I live, says the Lord God, Sodom, your sister, has not done, neither she nor her daughters, as you have done, you and your daughters.
49. Behold, this was the iniquity of your sister Sodom: pride, surfeit of bread, and abundance of idleness was in her and in her daughters; and she did not strengthen the hand of the poor and needy.
50. And they were haughty, and committed abomination before me; therefore I took them away when I saw it.
51. (K) Nor did Samaria commit half of your sins; but you have multiplied your abominations more than they, and have justified your sisters by all your abominations which you have done.
52. You also, who have judged your sisters, carry your own disgrace for your sins that you have committed more abominable than they; they have become more righteous than you; be ashamed also, and carry your disgrace, for you have made your sisters appear righteous.
53. (K) When I shall bring back their exiles, the exiles of Sodom and her daughters, and the exiles of Samaria and her daughters, then will I bring back the captivity of your exiles in the midst of them;
54. That you may carry your own shame, and may be confounded in all that you have done, in that you are a comfort to them.
56. Was not your sister Sodom a byword in your mouth in the day of your pride,
57. Before your wickedness was uncovered? It was at the time of the taunt of the daughters of Aram, and all who are around her, the daughters of the Philistines, those around you who despise you.
58. You have carried your lewdness and your abominations, says the Lord.
59. For thus says the Lord God; I will deal with you as you have done, for you have despised the oath in breaking the covenant.
60. Nevertheless I will remember my covenant with you in the days of your youth, and I will establish with you an everlasting covenant.
61. Then you shall remember your ways, and be ashamed, when you shall receive your sisters, your elder and your younger; and I will give them to you for daughters, but not on account of the covenant with you.
62. And I will establish my covenant with you; and you shall know that I am the Lord;
63. That you may remember, and be ashamed, and never open your mouth any more because of your shame, when I have forgiven you for all that you have done, says the Lord God.

Havdalah, the beautiful mitzvah, was beloved by the tzaddik Michael Adam Walton z”l of Salt Lake City who founded the Beit Midrash. When we practice Havdalah we remember how he carried out this mitzvah and for his/His honor, “Recover my ways, because My ways are not your ways.”[961] Michael A. Walton’s life was like the Havdalah service: sweet, fragrant, and beautiful.

Does Shabbat occur in remote places where there are no synagogues? This teaches us that Shabbat does not occur because of time alone, but requires an activity of a participant to happen. If one merely obtains lights Shabbat candles then one will bring Shabbat into a place where it is not normally celebrated. In fact all Jewish holidays are partnerships. We learn that when the Jews were not able to keep the original dates, Pesach Sheni and Shushan Purim were celebrated instead. Hence, time is subject to our behavior. As sins of the past were never committed after repentance, so the celebration of any holiday is a partnership of action, where time is the reminder.

## 8.5 Seasons

The Earth is referred to by four names in the liturgy.[962] During the spring, the earth is Eretz from the word Ratz that means movement or running. During the springtime, the earth is busy replenishing life. In the summer, the earth is called Tevel, which comes from the Hebrew word for spices and taste. In the summer, the earth enriches vegetation with the flavor of spices. In the fall, the earth is called Adamah, which means soil. Adam was created in the fall at Rosh Hashanah. In the fall, the earth dries up and soil clumps together with decaying vegetation. In the winter, the earth is Arak that means empty since the earth lies barren at this time.[963]

So, wither the leaves of the past generation to produce the flowers of the next generation[964]

The orchid is showing us the proper way to live.

### 8.5.1 Rosh Hodesh

On Rosh Hodesh at the end of Hallel, there are two customary verses; the first is found in most siddurim, the second is often hidden.

Text 8-39: The Lord blessed Abraham with a daughter
And Abraham was old, advanced in years, and the Lord blessed Abraham in all things.[965]
May Z’vadyah – זבדיה protect me and grant me life. So may it be Your will, living God and eternal King, in whose hand is the soul of every living thing. Amen.[966]

The second verse is a mystery as Z’vadyah is not the name of G-d, but a force of G-d. Z’vad means to endow with gifts or presents that bring fruitfulness and growth. Leah names her son Zebulun for the dowry G-d has provided her.[967]

Text 8-40: A Present for Leah
And she said to her, “Is it a small matter that you have taken my husband and would you take away my son’s mandrakes also?” And Rachel said, “Therefore he shall lie with you tonight for your son’s mandrakes.” And Jacob came from the field in the evening, and Leah went out to meet him, and said, “You must come in to me; for I have hired you with my son’s mandrakes.” And he lay with her that night. And God listened to Leah, and she conceived, and bore Jacob the fifth son. And Leah said, “God has given me my hire, because I have given my maid to my husband”; and she called his name Issachar. And Leah conceived again, and bore Jacob the sixth son. And Leah said, “God has endowed me with a good dowry; now will my husband live with me, because I have born him six sons”; and she called his name Zebulun. And afterwards she bore a daughter, and called her name Dinah. And God remembered Rachel, and God listened to her, and opened her womb. And she conceived, and bore a son; and said, “God has taken away my reproach”; And she called his name Joseph; and said, The Lord shall add to me another son.

The blessing that Abraham received in his old age was “in all things” which also means a daughter.
The angel Z’vadiah – זבדיה is Hashem’s force for the good life, a rich life, where the richness brings fruitfulness even in old age. This is a ‘real’ dowry or present that helps one grow and be a better person as opposed to superficial expensive gifts. The Hebrew name of G-d, Yah – יה denotes Hochmah or wisdom. The name Z’vadiah means a present, gift, or endowment that leads to wisdom. We provide children with Hanukah gelt for their education.

Hochmah also teaches us that the beginning of wisdom is the Fear of G-d. This is the fear children have of their parents when they act because they love them and do not want to disappoint them. A daughter or Malchuts obtains wisdom by being elevated to Hochmah, i.e by spending time with her father. Malchuts also denotes the Shechinah and presence of G-d and is a blessing. Hence, G-d blessed Abraham with a “daughter”. This is the presence of G-d. In truth Z’vadiah means the “Gift of Wisdom” as nothing protects a man more and gives him life then wisdom.

When Leah went out to bring her husband in from the field, she had inside herself a longing to build up the whole house of Israel. Out of Leah would be born the great leaders of the Jewish people.[968]

Text 8-41: The Leaders of the House of Leah
In Chronicles 2:19:11:
And, behold, Amariah the chief priest is over you in all matters of the Lord; and Zebadiah the son of Ishmael, the ruler of the house of Judah, for all the king’s matters; also the Levites shall be officers before you. Deal courageously, and the Lord shall be with the good.

From Leah will be born Moshiach ben Judah with the spark of the righteous Ruth whose descendent is David.

### 8.5.2 Winter Equinox

Text 8-42: Winter Hope
In the mountains, evergreen trees
Snow below me, fallen leaves
Yet my hope does ever rise
To the light blue shining sky
Wisps of clouds, forgotten dreams
Light cool breeze and deep cool springs
So our hope is rooted below,
Upon the earth below the snow

Text 8-43: Avodah Zorah 6a
Said Rabina: Come and hear [the following Mishnah]: These are the festivals of idolaters, Kalenda, Saturnalia and Kratesis, now R. Hanin b. Raba explained that Kalenda [lasts for] eight days after the [Winter] Equinox, and Saturnalia [is kept on the] eight days preceding the Equinox; as a mnemonic take the verse, Thou hast beset me behind and before. Now, were you inclined to think that the periods are inclusive of the Festivals, then there are [at times] ten days: The Tanna may regard the whole Kalenda as one day.

Some regard Constantine’s assignment of Christmas to this time of year as one day to reform pagan holiday celebrations. There are eight days from Christmas to New Years.

Text 8-44: Avodah Zorah 8a
MISHNAH. THESE ARE THE FESTIVITIES OF THE IDOLATERS: KALENDA, SATURNALIA, KRATESIS, THE ANNIVERSARY OF ACCESSION TO THE THRONE AS WELL AS [ROYAL] BIRTHDAYS AND ANNIVERSARIES OF DEATHS. THIS IS R. MEIR'S OPINION. BUT THE SAGES SAY, A DEATH AT WHICH BURNING [OF ARTICLES OF THE DEAD] TAKES PLACE IS ATTENDED BY IDOLATRY, BUT WHERE THERE IS NOT SUCH BURNING THERE IS NO IDOLATRY. HOWEVER, THE DAY OF SHAVING ONES BEARD OR LOCK OF HAIR, OR THE DAY OF LANDING AFTER A SEA VOYAGE, OR THE DAY OF RELEASE FROM PRISON, OR IF AN IDOLATER HOLDS A BANQUET FOR HIS SON — THE PROHIBITION ONLY APPLIES TO THAT DAY AND THAT PARTICULAR PERSON.

GEMARA. Said R. Hanan b. Raba: KALENDA is kept on the eight days following the [winter] equinox. SATURNALIA on the eight days preceding the equinox. As a mnemonic take the verse, Thou hast beset me behind and before. (Psalm 139:5)

Our Rabbis taught: When primitive Adam saw the day getting gradually shorter, he said, ‘Woe is me, perhaps because I have sinned, the world around me is being darkened and returning to its state of chaos and confusion; this then is the kind of death to which I have been sentenced from Heaven!’ So he began keeping an eight days’ fast. But as he observed the winter equinox and noted the day getting increasingly longer, he said, ‘This is the world's course’, and he set forth to keep an eight days’ festivity. In the following year he appointed both as festivals. Now, he fixed them for the sake of Heaven, but the [heathens] appointed them for the sake of idolatry.

This is quite right according to the one who holds that the world was created in Tishri, so that he saw the short days before seeing the longer days; but according to the one holding that the world was created in Nisan, Adam must have seen the long days as well as the short ones! — Still, he had not yet seen the very short days. Our Rabbis taught: When Adam, on the day of his creation, saw the setting of the sun he said! ‘Alas, it is because I have sinned that the world around me is becoming dark; the universe will now become again void and without form — this then is the death to which I have been sentenced from Heaven!’ So he sat up all night fasting and weeping and Eve was weeping opposite him. When however dawn broke, he said: ‘This is the usual course of the world!’ He then arose and offered up a bullock...

Text 8-45: Psalm 139:5
Tanach - Psalms Chapter 139

1. To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David. O Lord, you have searched me, and known me.
2. You know when I sit down and when I rise up, you understand my thoughts from far away.
3. You have measured my going and my lying down, and you are acquainted with all my ways.
4. For before a word is in my tongue, behold, O Lord, you know it all.
5. You have beset me behind and before, and laid your hand upon me.
6. (K) Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is high, I cannot attain it.
7. Where shall I go from your spirit? Where shall I flee from your presence?
8. If I ascend up to heaven, you are there! If I make my bed in Sheol, behold, you are there!
9. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea,
11. If I say, Surely the darkness shall cover me, the light shall be night about me.
12. Even the darkness is not dark for you; but the night shines like the day; darkness is as light with you.
13. For you have formed my insides; you knit me together in my mother’s womb.
14. I will praise you; for I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Marvelous are your works! And my soul knows that right well.
15. My frame was not hidden from you, when I was made in secret, and finely wrought in the depths of the earth.
16. (K) Your eyes saw my unformed substance; and in your book all things were written; also the days in which they are to be fashioned, and for it too there was one of them.
17. How precious also are your thoughts to me, O God! How vast is their sum!
18. If I should count them, they are more in number than the sand; when I awake, I am still with you.
19. Surely you will slay the wicked, O God! Depart from me therefore, you bloody men!
20. For they speak against you wickedly, and your enemies take your name in vain.
21. Do I not hate them, O Lord, those who hate you? And do I not strive with those who rise up against you?
22. I hate them with the utmost hatred; I count them my enemies.
23. Search me, O God, and know my heart! Test me, and know my thoughts!
24. And see if there is any wicked way in me, and lead me in the way everlasting.

That we may know that G-d is with us before and after whether the days are getting shorter or longer.

## 8.6 Future

Many hope for the rebuilding of the Temple, only to fail to remember that the Kingdom of Israel was divided due to the first. Many were embittered by David’s taxation for a place difficult for them to reach. With his son’s efforts the kingdom was ultimately divided. Will everyone be able to bring offerings to a place so far away?

Many hope for moshiach, but forget the warning of Samuel that you already have G-d as your King. The anointed could also be a High Priest.

Many hope for a prophet, but prophecy has ceased since the destruction of the 2nd Temple and exile. Was there ever a prophet accepted without discension? Is there sufficient unity and spiritual elevation to recognize a prophet?

Many hope for unity, but would the great contributions to Judaism have been made if we agreed?

Many hope for a Sanhedren, but is the Jewish law today practiced with the leniency of Hillel so as not disenfranchise the Russian immigrants living in Israel today who dream of a simple conversion to be part of a nation they love.

How will do we reach the nations of the world who are not connected with Israel when we focus on the G-d of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Where is the Torah that teaches the G-d of Adam, including all humanity?

How can we extend the Oral Law to include all humanity in the belief in one G-d? How can we accommodate the huge number of mixed marriages who prefer to create Jewish families, but are alienated by the orthodoxy?

How can we deal with Reform Judaism, which has so little faith in the Torah; but created the modern State of Israel? While they reach out and reach in, can they recall their identity? They have unity and concern to address the pressing issues of Jews today. Yet many of their converts have no identity with Israel and are found in her enemy camps.

Many hope for a tzaddik who will tell them the right answers, but forget the axiom that in the son of man there is no savior.

How do we follow our shining star with brilliance and hope and avoid idolatry? How do we believe in a God who is Ayn Sof and yet relate to him with personal attributes? Should we realize that while a host of angels represent all the actions of G-d, including the creation of the world that can confuse our faith. How do we ignore the intermediary concept thrust upon us by realizing that our prayers are carried by angels? If we can accept that the angels are all part of G-d, this great ELOHIM, then we can always talk directly with the Ribono shel Olam.

## 8.7 Passages of Life

With proper health, the periods of ones life are on the boundaries of a fort night.

0-19 Childhood
40-59 Middle age
60-79 Senior age
80-99 Old age

The religious push the functions earlier. Marriage is pushed down to 18. The earlier one marries, the less one will sin in life so one could even marry at the age of 13.

The Mishnah Perkei Avot – “Sayings of the fathers” characterizes the ages of man as follows:[969]

MISHNAH 21. HE USED TO SAY:(139) FIVE YEARS [IS THE AGE] FOR [THE STUDY OF] SCRIPTURE,(140) TEN-FOR [THE STUDY OF] MISHNAH,(141) THIRTEEN-FOR [BECOMING SUBJECT TO] COMMANDMENTS,(142) FIFTEEN-FOR [THE STUDY OF] TALMUD,(143) EIGHTEEN- FOR THE [BRIDAL] CANOPY,(144) TWENTY — FOR PURSUING,(145) THIRTY-FOR [FULL] STRENGTH,(146) FORTY — FOR UNDERSTANDING, FIFTY- FOR [ABILITY TO GIVE] COUNSEL,(147) SIXTY-FOR MATURE AGE, SEVENTY-FOR A HOARY HEAD,(148) EIGHTY [IS A SIGN OF SUPERADDED] STRENGTH,(149) NINETY [IS THE AGE] FOR [A] BENDING [FIGURE],(150) AT A HUNDRED, ONE IS AS ONE THAT IS DEAD, HAVING PASSED AND CEASED FROM THE WORLD.(151)

MISHNAH 22,(152) BEN BAG BAG(153) SAID: TURN IT(154) OVER, AND [AGAIN] TURN IT OVER, FOR ALL IS THEREIN.(155) AND LOOK(156) INTO IT; AND BECOME GREY AND OLD THEREIN;(157) NEITHER MOVE THOU AWAY THEREFROM,(158) FOR THAN IT THOU HAST NO BETTER STANDARD OF CONDUCT.(159)

MISHNAH 23. BEN HEHE(160) SAID: ACCORDING TO THE LABOUR IS THE REWARD.(161)

(139) MV, also other texts, attribute this dictum to Samuel the Little. In some versions it is preceded by the dictum which is also found in the latter's name in IV, 19. By some, our Mishnah is credited to Ben He-He, whose name occurs in the next Mishnah.(140) tren (v. Meh. VIII, 8), lit., that which was (to be) read sc. from a written text (synonymous with ‘The Law in Writing’), as distinguished from vban ‘that which was (to be) recited sc. from hearing and memory’ (synonymous with ‘The Law which was (transmitted) by (word of) mouth’). The five years here are said to be based on the analogy of the newly planted tree, the fruit of which becomes available for general consumption in the fifth year (Lev. XIX, 25).
(141) vban v. previous note. The age of ten in this connection is explained thus: In Num. IV, 3’ etc. the period of a Levite's service is commanded to begin ‘from thirty years old’, but ibid. VIII, 24, ‘from twenty-five years old.’ The discrepancy is explained by allotting five years for the Levite's training before he becomes proficient for his sacred duties (v. Hui. 24a). Five years is, thus, an accepted period for the first phase of education. Commencing Scripture at five, one is ready for Mishnah at ten.
(142) In connection with many precepts, references to the committing of sins and penalties, the term aht — ‘man’ — is used; hence the age at which one becomes subject to Mizwoth and penalties is thirteen, when the boy is said to have matured into a ‘man’ (v. Elijah Wilna to this Mishnah). This, of course, underlies the Bar-Mizwah institution, which, however, in the present usage of the term, appears to be of much later origin.V. Schechter, Studies in Judaism (First Series), p. 378ff.
(143) sunk, Used here, apparently, in the special sense of study based on the Mishnah or Oral Learning (though not, of course, in the specific sense that we use it), rather than study in general. At the age of fifteen, he will have completed the second five years’ stage of his studies.
(144) Eighteen was the age recommended at which a man should marry so that he may fulfil the precept, When a man taketh a new wife, he shall not go out in the host . . .’ one year, and shall cheer his wife whom he hath taken (Deut. XXIV, 5) and yet be ready to undertake military service at the age of twenty (Num. I, 3 passim).
(145) Some: For military service which began ‘from twenty years old’ (Num. ibid.). Most commentators: for pursuing, seeking, a livelihood. This will have given him a further five-year period (from fifteen to twenty) for devoting himself to Talmud before setting out in earnest on a worldly career. Others explain ‘for pursuing’ to mean for quickness, zest, impetuosity, in the pursuit of one's desires or ideals (so Abrabanel, v. Taylor).
(146) Thirty was the age at which a Levite entered upon his full duties which comprised the work of service and the work of bearing burdens (Num. IV, 47); these duties being so comprehensive and arduous required the possession of full physical faculties i e jf Scripture thus considers thirty the age for strength. V. also ibid. VII, 9.
(147) According to Num. VIII, 25f.: from the age of fifty years they (the Levites) shall return from the service of the work, and shall serve no more; but shall minister with their brethren in the tent of meeting, to keep the charge, but they shall do no manner of service. As their ministrations were not in the nature of actual work, they must then have served in the capacity of responsible counsellors. Hence fifty must be the age when a man becomes fitted for giving counsel.
(148) V. II Sam. V, 4: David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned.forty years. i.e., he lived seventy years; and I Chron. XXIX, 28, And he (David) died in a good old age ( vcha =hoary head). Thus vcha is reached at the age of seventy.
(149) Cf. Ps. XC, 10.
(150) vuak The Bibl. root vua means ‘sink down’ and its cognates vja and vja ‘bend’, ‘bow down’. Others take vua here as a noun which in the Bible occurs in a feminine form vjua’ ‘pit’, ‘grave’.
(151) Elijah Wilna cites Isa. LXV, 20, There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man that hath not filled his days; for the youth shall die one hundred years old, and points out that the context there shows that this is intended as a blessing. Thus the extreme limit up to which life is a blessing is a hundred years; and one who exceeds that limit is as one who no more belongs to the world. Exceptions to this are very rare; and in the case of Moses, Scripture found it necessary to say: his eye was not dim nor his natural force abated (Deut. XXXIV, 7).
(152) MV has this passage at the end of Chapter VI, together with the prayer in Mishnah 20.
(153) His full name, Johanan b. Bag Bag, occurs in J. Keth. V: 4. Tos. V, as a contemporary of R. Judah b. Bathyra. Tosaf. Yom Tob a.l. says the name is omitted here, as also in Ben He-He's case, because they did not live long (cf. Ben Zoma and Ben ‘Azzai supra IV beginning), and quotes Rashbam to the effect that Ben Bag Bag and Ben He-He were proselytes, and tv tv ihc means a son of Abraham and Sarah, to whose respective names God had, as a sign of favour, added the letter v and whose spiritual ‘parenthood’ is assumed for all proselytes; dc (in Ben Bag Bag) is the numerical equivalent of v (five). He was so called to distinguish him from b. He He (v. Tosaf. to Hag. 9b). Bacher AT, I, p. 10f. suggests the following explanation of the two names: In Shab. 31a, etc. we have the story of the would-be proselyte who desired to learn Torah, but only the written and not the oral (traditional). Hillel cured him of his contempt for the oral tradition by letting him see that the knowledge of the very names of the letters of the Alphabet depended on oral tradition, e.g., he pointed out to him that we know c is Beth and d is Gimmel and not vice-versa only by means of oral instruction. Such a disciple might well have earned for himself the name ’d'c ‘d'c ic or hv hv ic (the one who learnt that v is He). They, or (if they are identical) he, may have derived the sayings given here in the two names from Hillel himself as in I ARM XII, both sayings are in the name of Hillel (in II ARM XXVII the first in Hillel's name, the second in that of tv tv ic as in our text). There is also a suggestion that dc is formed from the initial letters of ohrc ic son of proselytes,’ (v. MV).
(154) The Torah.
(155) Lowe's MS. adds vc lkufu ‘and thy all is therein,’ for which Taylor adduces Eccl. XII, 13, and this (i.e., fearing God and observing his commandments) is the whole of wan.
(156) Look deeply, contemplate. MV: huv, vcu ‘and therein (thou shouldst) have thy being.’
(157) Cf. Ps. XCII, 15.
(158) Cf. the frequent admonitions not to turn aside from the Law to the right or to the left.
(159) vsn v. p. 67, n. 3.
(160) V. p. 76, n. 7.
(161) A proverb of general application, but here it has special reference to the labour and energy devoted to the study of the Torah.

## 8.8 Death

Jewish law requires from “dust to dust” in burial that is a body is buried in the earth. Ideally, this is accomplished with no casket, no grave liner, and especially no vault. Even a vault with holes drilled in the bottom is unacceptable. That modern Judaism has begun to accept this idea is a result in acquiescence to the requirements of foreign cemeteries. These requirements are built on the profit of using expensive caskets that create space in the ground that cave in over time. Hence the best approach is burial in a shroud without a casket. The second best approach is to use a small pine box. In both approaches the soil can be leveled to break through the casket and minimize shifting.

Burial in the desert land of Israel had less likelihood for shifting soil than foreign regions. The problems of settling leading to tombstones falling over did not exist. In the natural burial above, a tombstone would require a much more solid concrete base so as not to be effected by settling. That is certainly permitted in the Jewish law. The money could be invested in the base of tombstones, not in making vaults surrounding souls, e.g. the nefesh or body of the departed. Note, tombstones are to be laid eleven months later when by that time the body and soil should have settled. In Judaism, the body is intrinsically tied to the soul and a body that is not allowed to decay naturally in the earth pulls the soul back and is perceived as still alive to survivors in the dreams of the night.

Meditation 8-15: Burial dream
I saw my father in a luminescent yellow light. He had a cover capping his body. I noticed lines on his face and a pattern on his skin that seemed beyond life. But I saw him smile and the wrinkles faded. Nevertheless, he still had something over him that seemed unnatural. I saw him pull something into his mouth like the cloth of the tallis he was buried in. When I awoke, I realized the cover was a grave vault and why it is undesirable in Jewish burial. The tallis that was his own is a great Kavod to bury with the departed.

From this dream, I can see why the burial liner is also prohibited although it is open from the bottom to the earth. There is something about the soul needing a path from the dirt up to the sky and sunshine that is required for a proper Jewish burial. The casket for certain is not required, and thus a burial vault or a burial liner is a violation of the Jewish law. Perhaps it is the principle of the resurrection of the dead that requires an opening of a burial plot to the surface of the earth.

Mounds are used in burial to accommodate settling of the earth. While they seem intrusive to walk amongst, they have a purpose to allow for soil to settle. Ideally without a casket, not much additional soil would be needed to prevent settling and the integrity of a gravesite. Ultimately with settling we may only know approximately of the locations of the departed. In Israel this is the case with kings, judges, prophets, patriarchs and matriarchs. There is also a Jewish idea that bones roll from underground to Israel in preparation for the resurrection. This is another reason to avoid the use of burial vaults. With a proper Jewish burial when we visit the areas where the departed are buried, it should be felt as if their soul is over a wide region from “dust to dust.”

## 8.9 End marker

[877] Tav is in Esther 9:7. Shin and Zayin are in Esther 9:9.
[878] Rabbi Daniel Lapin of the Venice Orthodox Community lectured on this subject at the Mercer Island, WA minyan.
[879] Neo-platonic thought views the physical sphere as the lowest and place of evil. Jewish thought does not adhere to this view since Hod is viewed as a source of evil in permissiveness. Nevertheless, we see traces of Neo-platonic thought here.
[880] Caveeyahol means an idea that we cannot take literally, but is the limit of our language to describe. Usually applied in descriptions of G-d.
[881] Avotah Zarah 1 beginning Aryeh Rosenfeld recording
[882] Sefer Yetzirah 5:4.
[883] Rosh Hashana 11a
[884] Pirke De Rabbi Eliexer, trans. Gerald Friedlander, p. 33.
[885] Slavonic Enoch xxx reads, “The sun that he should go according to each sign of the Zodiac; and the course of the moon through the twelve signs of the Zodiac.”
[886] The days of the Sun correspond to the solar months. From Pirkei De Rabbi Eliezer, p. 33, note 4: “The Venice edition reads: ‘the days of the solar month.’”
[887] This is the time that the moon stays in a constellation as it progresses.
[888] Perke De Rabbi Eliezer, p. 31.
[889] Abib in the Soncino
[890] King 1:6:1 states Ziv meaning light is the second month of the year.
[891] Kings 1:8:2
[892] Sefer Yetzirah 5:10.
[893] Sefer Yetzirah, Aryeh Kaplan trans. 5:1, p. 197.
[894] Book of our Heritage, p. 347. The Light Beyond, Kaplan 9:24.
[895] Salt Lake City, Passover 5764
[896] The Curious History of the Six-Pointed Star, Gersholm Scholem, How the Magen David became the Jewish Symbol, p.245. Also Celebrating Passover, Diane Hoyt-Goldsmith, p.19.
[897] See 8.3.6 Elul p. 315, 17.4 Fifty Gates of Understanding p. 315, 13.8.4 on the 49 letters in the Shema, Text 9-12 on p.315, Meditation 9-1: Gates of Wisdom on p. 315.
[898] See 4.9.2.3 Obstacles in the Mist p.315
[899] See 11.1 David p.315
[900] Torah, Light and Healing, Matityahu Glazerson, pp. 38-39.
[901] The Traditional Prayer Book for Sabbath and Festivals, Rabbinical Council of America, Behrman House publishing, 1960, trans. David De Sola Pool, pp.506-512. http://books.google.com/books?id=hFVXKyh_EDgC&pg=PR8&dq=The+Traditional+Prayer+Book+for+Sabbath+and+Festivals&ei=oon1S-SzBoKClQSo5LHdCQ&cd=3#v=onepage&q=The%20Traditional%20Prayer%20Book%20for%20Sabbath%20and%20Festivals&f=false
[905] Kinot 45, The Final Kinot, The Complete Tishah B’Av Service, p.390
[906] Joel 1:8
[907] See 21.42 on hypnobirthing
[908] That you should know the messiah is not god. Even in Luke 18:19, “And Jesus said unto him, “Why callest thou me good? None is good, save one, that is, God.”
[909] See 31.1.10 Atonement story on p.315
[910] Judaism: A National Day of Introspection, Tish b’Av 2014 http://www.israelnationalnews.com/Articles/Article.aspx/15457#.U-DAG6OSBcA
[911] See http://www.ou.org/chagim/roshchodesh/av/tubav.htm
[912] Talmud Taanith 26b that is the Mishnah
[913] Talmud Taanith 31a
[914] Talmud Taanith 31a
[915] http://www.shalomctr.org/node/252
[916] The holiday of Shavuot.
[917] The Zohar, translation and commentary by Daniel C. Matt, Stanford University Press, 2004, p.18
[918] Folliott S. Pierpoint, 1835-1917 based on Psalm 95:1-6 and Psalm 33:1-6.
[919] Rosh Hashanah 5757 – September 14, 1996 – 11 AM
[920] This is the force of the Kelipot. Before any significant spiritual experience, there is a battle or test to be overcome.
[921] Reuben SJ associated himself with the number 5 and movement that is Hesed, Sukkot 5775.
[922] See end of Sec.13.8.3
[923] The Zohar Pritzker Edition, Daniel C. Matt, p.50.
[924] Postscript: Fast of Gedaliah – September 16, 1996
[925] The Book of Our Heritage, Eliyahu Kitov, Book 1, pp 63-64.
[926] Sha’are Orah, Gates of Light. Harper Collins. Page 189.
[927] Ibid. Page 263.
[928] Jeshurun that is a beloved name for Israel.
[929] See 17.2.4 The Three Mother Letter Paths
[930] Like the Curtain in the story of Rabbi Ishmael above.
[931] Nissim led this discussion at Chabad SLC, 10/12/2003, the second day of Sukkoth between Mincha and Maariv.
[932] From my own Tashlich service with my mother up at Silver Lake, Brighton, Utah in the year 5765.
[933] Zohar 4:31b-32a, Soncino vol. 4. p. 386-387.
[934] The seven species are lulav, Etrog, three myrtles, and two willows.
[935] http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/citron.html
[936] Berachos 4b.
[937] Gayle Patricia Chellis, 1/03/2006.
[938] The Sukkah of the world to come will use the skin of the Leviathan as its walls.
[939] Kislev 21, 5759 – December 9th – 9 PM
[940] The mirrors represent the reflection of the souls in each other since they were all of the same source root.
[941] Likutey Moharan 17:5 vol. 3, page 45 also Footnote 80. Giving charity to root souls encompasses other souls.
[942] December 9, 2002
[943] The Book of Our Heritage, Feldheim Publishers, page 327.
[944] Tu B’shvat – New Year of Trees – January 26, 1994
[945] Deep in Daas – Tu B’shvat – January 22, 1997 – 7:30 PM
[946] Feb. 8th, 2009
[947] “Timna and Purim,” http://ravkooktorah.org/PURIM61.htm
[948] Above the Zodiac, M. Glazerson, p.132
[949] See Sefer Yetzirah 4:3, 5.2.4 The Seven Double Letters, and Figure 5-3: Seven Planets and Earth.
[950] See Table 5-4: Sefirot Leanings and Table 14-3: Double Letters
[951] Sefer Yetzirah, Aryeh Kaplan, page. 163.
[952] Berachos 6b.
[953] Moshe Louis
[954] Then will end the discrimination presented in 3.3 Talmud
[956] The 39 Avoth Melacha of Shabbath, Rabbi Baruch Chait, Feldheim Publishers, 1992. The seven items above are from here.
[957] a- fâr, fäte; i- jovîal; o- nöte
[958] Menucha vSimcha, “Rest and Happiness”, A Guide to Basic Laws and Themes of Shabbos and Yom Tov and Their Applications in Theory and in Practice, Rabbi Mordechai Katz, Feldheim for Jewish Educational Program, p.24.
[959] Jewish Magic and Superstition, A Study in Folk Religion, Joshua Trachtenberg, Atheneum, p. 160, 1984, reprinted from the Jewish Publication Society version 1934.
[960] Tosafot Ber. 40a, Isserles Orah Hayim 167:5
[961] These words were in my mind from Michael at his house just before his passing. The first ‘his’ is for Michael and ‘His’ is Hashem; the first ‘my’ is Michael, and the ‘My’ is Hashem.
[962] Me’am Loez. Genesis. Page 70.
[963] The month of Heshvan ~ November has the sign of Akrav which is the Scorpio. The similarity of spelling with Arak signifies that scorpions are often found in the barren desert.
[964] On helping Orchids to flower, April 19, 1997
[965] Genesis 24:1 “In all things” means in Hebrew a daughter. See also Text 5-26: Shaarey Orah on Kol (all)
[966] Chabad Siddur Tehillat Hashem, p.245.
[967] Genesis 30:15-24
[968] Shira Smiles, lecture to Stern college on Aishet Chayil, a woman of valor.
[969] Soncino translation and commentary